boiler water alkalinity Articles

  • Reverse osmosis water chemistry

    Alkalinity: Alkalinity is comprised primarily of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxides. Naturally occurring alkalinity is the earth’s natural buffering system in that small doses of strong acids (e.g. acid rain) react with alkalinity and result in relatively small changes in pH. Carbon dioxide and bicarbonate are in a balance between the pH range of 4.4 and 8.2. At a pH of 4.4 or ...

  • Komax teflon lined mixer simplifies acid injection for power plant

    A major source of waste water in many power plants is the waste stream that results from ion exchange used for demineralizing the boiler feed water. The alkaline regeneration waste stream produced by the ion exchange process requires the addition of an acid to this stream before discharge from the plant. Regulatory authorities typically require the effluent to have a near neutral pH before ...


    By Komax Systems, Inc.

  • Oil refinery reduces energy consumption with a Culligan Solution

    Challenge A major petroleum refinery was looking to replace a hot lime softener. Naturally occurring minerals such as Calcium, Magnesium and Silica can cause scale in steam boilers and other types of equipment used in refinery operations. Scale deposits in steam boilers con reduce equipment efficiency and increase energy, chemical, disposal and maintenance costs. Hot lime softening is a ...


    By Culligan Water

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