calcium hardness Articles

  • New total hardness (Calcium and Magnesium) automated titration method case study

    MANTECH INC. is a leading manufacturer of automated multi-parameter, titration, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) laboratory and process instruments. MANTECH developed the first automated software based titration system in the world. By listening to our environmental customers, MANTECH understood the need to develop a new total hardness (calcium and magnesium) ...


    By MANTECH INC.

  • Experimental study on calcium carbonate precipitation using electromagnetic field treatment

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of electromagnetic fields in preventing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) fouling in cooling water. Four different frequencies and two different voltages were adopted to induce electromagnetic fields directly in water with constant water temperature and constant flow velocity. Artificial hard water was used. The solution conductivities decreased by ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate powders by a simple hydrolysis process

    An ideal bone grafting material should be compatible with physiological environment, provoke osseous tissue formation and adapt degradation behaviour to new bone tissue growth. Calcium phosphates, a main inorganic constituent of the human hard tissue, are by far the best substitute materials for bone reconstruction because of their excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. In ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • How can I measure temporary and permanent water hardness?

    Hard water is water with high levels of dissolved minerals, and usually occurs in areas where limestone and chalk are common. These minerals can be divided into two types, and so hardness is often considered in two categories – permanent and temporary water hardness. So how can we measure water hardness? Can we measure temporary and permanent ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Green Water Treatment prevents scaling caused by hard water

    Fluid Dynamics has over 200,000 installations of its equipment all over the world. With applications in process industry, office blocks, hospitals, private villas, universities,oil, food and engineering companies, and clients as diverse as McDonald’s, Pfizer, and Unilever.“It is very satisfying” says Robert Spencer, Fluid Dynamics Managing Director, who, with his father founded the business in ...

  • Preventing scaling caused by hard water without the use of chemicals ... a unique green technology

    Preventing scaling caused by hard water without the need to use chemicals. A unique green technology.Scaling caused by hard water is a worldwide problem it builds up in process systems, heating systems, air condi¬tioning systems and even irrigation systems. Traditional methods to prevent it involve water softening, deminer¬alisation or the addition of chemicals. All of which are expensive and ...

  • Impact of environmentally based chemical hardness on uranium speciation and toxicity in six aquatic species

    Treated effluent discharge from uranium (U) mines and mills elevates the concentration of U, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulfate (SO42‐) above natural levels in receiving waters. Many investigations on the effect of hardness on U toxicity were often experiments on the combined effect of changes in hardness, pH and alkalinity which do not represent water chemistry downstream of U mines and ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Scaling caused by hard water is one of nature’s expensive phenomenons.. But there is a totally natural solution

    Scaling caused by hard water is an expensive problem .. not only do significant financial costs arise trying to prevent it or  removing the effects of it but in addition there is a huge environmental; cost to many of the treatments used against it.! Water softeners put so much salt into the environment that they are now being banned in some parts of the USA. Chemicals, as we all know, are ...

  • Water analysis

    A complete tap water analysis includes the determination of the pH value, the alkalinity and the total water hardness. Both the pH measurement and the pH titration by means of a standard pH electrode suffer from several drawbacks. First, the response time of several minutes is too long and, above all, the stirring rate significantly influences the measured pH value. Unlike these standard pH ...


    By Metrohm AG

  • Sample preparation for the analysis of secondary fuel in cement plants

    Secondary fuel can be a very inhomogeneous sample, containing all types of polymers, paper, wood and low fractions of metal. Also recycled wood or parts of automobile tires might be used as secondary fuel. Before using it as fuel in the production of cement, several chemical analyses are necessary as quality control. Cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate), with small quantities ...


    By Fritsch Milling and Sizing

  • Water softeners fact sheet

    What is hard water? According to a recent U.S. Geological Survey, 85 percent of the United States’ geography has hard water. Hard water is water that contains certain naturally occurring minerals, particularly magnesium and calcium. Hard water causes many problems in a home, including deposits in sinks and bathtubs and gummed-up pipes in home plumbing systems and water-using ...


    By Kinetico International

  • Cooling Systems: Increased Costs from Mineral Scaling and Biological Fouling - Case Study

    Mineral scaling and biological fouling are two of the most common problems associated with watercooled systems, and the costs from these issues can be enormous. By understanding how these issues affect cooling water systems, and their associated cost drivers, facility managers can make informed decisions on proper scale and biological fouling control. Scale Definition ...


    By Innovas Technologies LLC

  • Introduction to Ion Exchange Part 1

    IMPURITIES IN WATERWater is often referred to as the 'universal solvent' as it will dissolve small amounts of everything it touches. Water collects or dissolves a variety of mineral salts, organic compounds and suspended solids as it flows over the earth's surface and through the ground. These impurities make water undesirable for use in many applications. It is, therefore, important to ...


    By Kinetico Incorporated

  • Magnetic Water Conditioner

    I am sure you have heard about hard water before, and also know that hard water is bad for our health. If you check the kettle for boiling water, you will see limescale which will affect the efficiency of energy. There are several solutions for water softening, especially to lower the calcium and magnesium in water. 1. The easiest way is just to boil the water, the calcium hydroxide and magnesium ...


    By Stanford Magnets

  • Evaluating the effects of septic tank on shallow wells in Iba housing estate, Ojo LGA, Lagos

    Water samples from 30 shallow wells were measured for depth, depth to water table, and distance to septic tank. In situ parameters including electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, and temperature were measured using portable meters. Chemical parameters including salinity, chloride, calcium, alkalinity and total hardness were determined using titrimetry method. Sulphate and nitrate ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Hydrothermal synthesis of coccolith rich chalk to hydroxyapatite

    Calcium carbonates originating from marine sources show unique pore structure and nano–architecture, offering potential in the field of hard tissue engineering. It is hypothesised that the use of naturally–sourced raw materials for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA), as a component of a hard tissue constructs, enables enhanced bone remodelling due to the biomimetic physical–chemical ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Scalewatcher reduces car wash salt useage from 700lbs a week to 500lbs a year

      The Star Car Wash in Trussville, Alabama has dramatically reduced the amount of salt used in its water softeners from around 700 pounds per week to a diminutive 500 pounds per year following the installation of the computerized, electronic, water-conditioner Scalewatcher® from Scalewatcher North America. This has not only saved the company thousands of dollars a year in salt ...

  • Evaluation of control strategies for drinking water treatment plants using a process model

    This research adds a method to evaluate control strategies to the design methodology for drinking water treatment plants. A process model dealing with parameters related to the calcium carbon dioxide equilibrium was set up. Using the process model, the existing control strategy was compared with a new control strategy and the effects of two different sets of input data were studied. It was ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Environmental toxicity and radioactivity assessment of a titanium processing residue with potential for environmental use

    Thorough examination of the physico‐chemical characteristics of a Ti processing residue was undertaken including mineralogical, geochemical, and radiochemical characterisation, and an investigation of the environmental toxicity of softwater leachate generated from the residue. Concentrations of most metals measured in the leachate were low; thus, the residue is unlikely to leach high levels of ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • More efficient alkalisation with ground limestone in groundwater treatment

    Most Finnish groundwater must be alkalised before use as municipal drinking water because it is corrosive. The corrosiveness is due to low pH and softness of water. Groundwater also often contains aggressive carbon dioxide (CO2), so there is more free CO2 than is required to keep calcium and hydrogen carbonate in solution. The most popular alkalisation method in the past was addition of ...


    By IWA Publishing

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