carbon emissions factor Articles

  • Carbon footprints of Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants

    This study estimates the carbon footprints of 16 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), all situated in Scandinavian countries, by using a simple model. The carbon footprint calculations were based on operational data, literature emission factors (efs) and measurements of greenhouse gas emissions at some of the studied WWTPs. No carbon neutral WWTPs were found. The carbon footprints ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Different emission estimates produced by EU bodies/institutions

    EU GHG inventory submission to UNFCCC (EEA and DG Climate Action) The European Union (EU), as a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), reports annually on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories for the years 1990 to X-2 (i.e. two years before the current year1) and within the area covered by its Member States. The legal basis for the compilation of the ...

  • Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion in selected countries

    This article introduces an approach applicable to analysing different factors influencing elements relevant in sustainable development like environmental impacts. The approach is built on the idea of IPAT identity and it applies a chained two-factor decomposition technique for calculating numerical estimates for a larger set of contributing factors than traditionally done in applying ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Can Composting BMPS Reduce Air Emissions?

    Imagine a scenario where all yard trimmings collected for recycling have to be received, processed and composted under the cover of a building. It would be tough for most yard trimmings composting facilities to survive the expense. Yet this situation could have occurred in Southern California. At one point, the South Coast ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Designing “Measurable” Post-2020 emissions reduction commitments

    As climate negotiations kick off this week in Warsaw, Poland (COP 19), the stakes are high. The recently published UNEP Emissions Gap Report finds that countries are falling woefully short of the action required to avoid ...

  • Proposed boiler MACT sets aggressive emission limits

    On June 4, 2010, U.S. EPA proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters at both major and area sources of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) emissions.  EPA proposed separate rules for units at major sources of HAP emissions (greater than 10 tons per year [tpy] of any single HAP and/or greater ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • The Role of Eucalyptus Globulus Forest and Products in Carbon Sequestration

    Abstract This study is a contribution to the ongoing debate about the selection of the approach for carbon accounting in wood products to be used, in the future, in the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Two accounting approaches are used in this analysis: the stock-change approach and the atmospheric-flow approach. ...


    By Springer

  • Characterising emissions from private passenger vehicles using engine operating patterns

    A method to simulate emissions factors using frequency distribution plots of engine speed and engine load is proposed. The distribution plots and corresponding emissions factors were developed from speed time series' of real-world driving cycles and physical properties of a range of private passenger vehicles tested at the EMPA. Emissions factors were estimated for a set of simultaneously ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Energy and carbon management are cornerstone to risk mitigation strategies

    The landscape for national compliance reporting thresholds for facilities was about to dramatically increase in scale and the company did not have the resources and systems to measure, manage and report the required data in a timely and accurate manner. This organization with vast resources deployed across much of Western Canada was suddenly exposed to an alarming degree of financial risk for ...


  • Alstom Exec: Carbon Pricing & Technology Innovation Are Symbiotic

    Amy Ericson, U.S. country president for technology company Alstom, spoke at the World Bank Group about the interplay between carbon pricing and innovation that can lower carbon emissions for cleaner, more sustainable development. Alstom is involved in the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition. "Alstom supports a price on ...


    By The World Bank

  • Offsets in the international emissions market: Do buyers get what they pay for?

    This paper analyses buyer preferences in the context of the market for emissions trading under the UNFCCC. The purpose of this paper is to investigate pricing of offsets (Certified Emissions Reductions or “CERs” under the UNFCCC) (through an empirical survey of two segments of the authorized CER buyer market) to understand the relationship between buyer preferences for CER carbon offsets in the ...

  • Supply and demand: key trends in carbon consumption

    Hugh Jones, Managing Director of Carbon Trust Advisory, investigates eight key trends Carbon Trust Advisory predicts will have an impact over 2012 and beyond Regulatory pressures, the need to improve efficiency and save money, and the promise of reputational gain have driven many large organisations to look at how they can measure and reduce carbon in their own business. As carbon ...


    By Carbon Trust

  • The “Social cost of carbon” and climate change policy

    Economist Frank Ackerman has called the “social cost of carbon” the most important number you never heard of. What is the social cost of carbon, where do the numbers come from, and why should policymakers take care when using them? The Obama Administration (and the Bush Administration before it) uses the SCC to assess the benefits of regulations that would limit emissions of carbon ...

  • If carbon pricing is so great, why isn’t it working?

    Political hurdles and low prices have made carbon pricing a low-impact affair. But there’s still hope it can help limit climate change. Earth’s atmosphere has long served as a free dump for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases generated by humans. That is changing as policy-makers embrace economists’ advice that the best way to cut greenhouse gas emissions is to charge an ...


    By Ensia

  • Energy-related CO2 emissions from the manufacturing and transportation of cement

    Climate change is widely accepted as a global challenge. As a key building material, cement industry contributes significantly to the global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. This study examines the energy-related CO2 emitted from cement production and transportation. A case study provided the basis for this study. The finding indicates that the energy intensity for cement from 'cradle to ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Sustainability in a competitive world - A new carbon order emerges

    A growing global presence, a rising political power, a burgeoning consumer market are all terms associated with China. But, 'a voice for sustainability'? This doesn't tally with most people's perceptions of the country, which emits more CO2 than the US and Canada put together - up by over 170% since 2000[i] - and has recently been in the spotlight for not declaring its airline's carbon emissions. ...


    By Carbon Trust

  • Real-world vehicle emissions as measured by in situ analysis of exhaust plumes

    Abstract We conducted a 60-day roadside measurement campaign on a busy street in Münster, Germany, during summer 2016. We used gas and particle concentration measurements with high temporal resolution (10 Hz) to quantify both the emission ratios of nitrogen oxides per carbon dioxide (NOx/CO2) for over 70,000 individual exhaust plumes as well as the emission ratios ...


    By ECO PHYSICS AG

  • How quickly do CO2 emissions start to cause harm?

    It’s well known that carbon dioxide emissions cause the Earth to warm, but no previous study has focused on examining how long it takes to reach maximum warming following a particular CO2 emission. It is a widely held misconception that the main effects of a CO2 emission will not be felt for several decades. Some studies have estimated a 40 year lag between greenhouse emissions and elevated ...


    By GLOBE Foundation

  • EPA plans to make greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reporting mandatory

    Mandatory carbon (CO2) emissions reporting is more important than ever as the United States works with facilities to reduce substances known to adversely affect air quality, the climate, and lead to global warming. Most of the known matter that is destroying the earth’s ozone layer and contributing to global warming is derived from manmade compounds and chemicals with high global warming ...


    By Verisae

  • Questions and answers on the proposal to revise the EU emissions trading system (EU ETS)

    1. Why has the Commission proposed today a revision of EU ETS? The European Commission has presented a legislative proposal to revise the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) in line with the 2030 climate and energy policy framework agreed by the EU leaders in October 2014. The proposal is an integral part of the work on achieving a resilient Energy Union with a forward-looking climate ...


    By Europa Press Room

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