carbonate hardness Articles

  • UK energy – time to face some hard truths

    How can the UK meet its future energy needs? Tom Delay, CEO of the Carbon Trust, looks at how we can solve the problem with our energy future. The future of nuclear power in the UK looks well and truly stuck. The whole episode illustrates how high the stakes are at present for our energy future. Last month the new nuclear plant at Hinckley C was granted planning permission but we ...


    By Carbon Trust

  • Carbon Offsets

    In the 21st century, achieving 100% carbon neutrality can be a daunting task. Simple activities such as watching television, sending an email message, cooking and making a phone call all produce carbon emissions. Carbon offsets offer an alternative to reducing emissions by enabling individuals and businesses to compensate for their carbon emissions by purchasing credits which offset their ...


    By BSC Sustainability Services

  • Green Water Treatment prevents scaling caused by hard water

    Fluid Dynamics has over 200,000 installations of its equipment all over the world. With applications in process industry, office blocks, hospitals, private villas, universities,oil, food and engineering companies, and clients as diverse as McDonald’s, Pfizer, and Unilever.“It is very satisfying” says Robert Spencer, Fluid Dynamics Managing Director, who, with his father founded the business in ...

  • Carbon Monoxide (CO) Versus Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are often mistaken for one another. Both gases are odourless and colorless and target the cardiovascular system. Both gases can enter the body through inhalation, skin and / or eye. Similar symptoms that both gases have in common are headaches, dizziness, seizures, and hallucination. Most people have a hard time determining the difference and do not ...

  • Preventing scaling caused by hard water without the use of chemicals ... a unique green technology

    Preventing scaling caused by hard water without the need to use chemicals. A unique green technology.Scaling caused by hard water is a worldwide problem it builds up in process systems, heating systems, air condi¬tioning systems and even irrigation systems. Traditional methods to prevent it involve water softening, deminer¬alisation or the addition of chemicals. All of which are expensive and ...

  • Removal of DOC and its fractions from surface waters of the Canadian Prairie containing high levels of DOC and hardness

    In this paper removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and its fractions by chemical coagulation was studied. Raw water was collected from the Red River (Manitoba, Canada). This source water has a DOC concentration ranging from 8 to 12 mg L−1 and total hardness of about 400 mg L−1 CaCO3, which represents a typical surface water quality of the Canadian Prairie. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Scaling caused by hard water is one of nature’s expensive phenomenons.. But there is a totally natural solution

    Scaling caused by hard water is an expensive problem .. not only do significant financial costs arise trying to prevent it or  removing the effects of it but in addition there is a huge environmental; cost to many of the treatments used against it.! Water softeners put so much salt into the environment that they are now being banned in some parts of the USA. Chemicals, as we all know, are ...

  • The dangers of carbon dioxide

    We are often asked about the effects of carbon dioxide on the body and how to tell if there is a gas leak. As a result of this, we have created this post to provide additional information about exposure to carbon dioxide. What is carbon dioxide? Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas which occurs naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere at ...


    By Analox Sensor Technology

  • Undersea storage for US carbon emissions

    Researchers are working hard on methods to mitigate, reduce or compensate for CO2 emissions. One of these, geological carbon sequestration, involves injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers, or depleted oil and gas reservoirs so that it is not released into the atmosphere where it contributes to global warming. Now US researchers have found a potential new location for undersea CO2 storage, which ...

  • Transnational aspects of a linked carbon market

    As greenhouse gas emissions trading systems emerge worldwide, the prospect of linking these systems has increasing economic appeal. However, there are a number of, practical and political considerations to take into account which may in many cases outweigh this theoretical attractiveness. There are also several legal instruments and approaches that can be used to link schemes ranging, from the ...

  • Activated Carbon for Precious Metals Recovery

    Untitled Document Summary: Guidelines are presented for the selection, handling and regeneration of activated carbon used in gold recovery operations. The guidelines are based ...


    By Calgon Carbon Corporation

  • Influence of carbon nanotubes on the bioavailability of fluoranthene

    Concurrent with the increase in the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in society is the increase in their introduction into the environment. CNTs cause adverse effects themselves and they have the potential to adsorb contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Though CNTs have a high adsorption capacity for PAHs and these contaminants can co‐occur in the environment, few studies ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Diversifying power generation in a carbon-constrained future

    The US electricity industry faces operational and environmental challenges of unprecedented scope and complexity. Demand for electric power is increasing even as much of the generation fleet ages and capacity stagnates. Climate research and policy cloud the investment picture as utilities wrestle with this fundamental question: What technology portfolio must utilities develop to meet demand ...

  • Is a sector carbon deal the alternative to a global climate deal?

    The sectors with largest carbon emissions should jointly agree on a global sectoral system that integrates carbon and trade. The Cancun Summit will be a one more step on the road to establishing a workable framework for reducing global carbon emissions. But, a global climate deal focused on economy-wide carbon emissions targets seems to be insufficient. Following last month’s midterm ...


    By Vital Efficienci Ltd.

  • Bedbug Problem? Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Solution.

    Bedbug infestation is an extremely common problem worldwide. Bedbugs are small, nocturnal parasites that feed off of warm blooded animals and humans. They can survive in a wide range of temperature, low humidity and live for a year without eating. Adults can measure up to 5 mm in length and up to 3 mm wide. They are attracted to carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in human respiration and body warmth. ...

  • The awkward, realistic choices on low carbon electricity

    We must be guided by engineering reality, costs and markets, not emotion. Viewpoint from James Smith, Chairman, Carbon Trust As the public debate on securing our future energy needs continues to heat up, one thing is certain.  Kicking the fossil fuel habit will be hard. Over two billion people in the developing world need more energy. Even with major improvements in energy efficiency ...


    By Carbon Trust

  • Carbon capture plans need urgent aid

    Governments may no longer be investing in the capture of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. But a new study says that doesn’t mean it’s a bad idea. It argues that the world just needs to think harder and spend more to make the technology work because, to contain climate change, it may prove the only realistic and affordable way to dramatically reduce carbon ...


    By Climate News Network

  • Can we bury the carbon dioxide problem?

    Seriously — carbon capture and storage could be a game-changer. Mention “carbon capture and storage” — the process of trapping carbon dioxide produced in fossil-fuel burning or other industrial processes and burying it underground — in polite company, and you’re likely to be pounced on. It’s absurdly expensive. It can never be rolled ...


    By Ensia

  • What is the Difference Between Carbon Paper and Carbon Cloth Based Gas Diffusion Layers (GDL)?

    Carbon Paper Gas Diffusion Layers Carbon Paper Gas Diffusion Layers (GDL) (e.g. Sigracet, Freudenberg, Toray, etc) tend to be thinner and more brittle than Carbon Cloth Gas Diffusion Layers (e.g.  ...


    By Fuel Cells Etc

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