cement kiln emissions Articles

  • Sources of PCDDs/PCDFs In Cement Kiln Emissions

    Abstract This paper presents data on the source of PCDDs/PCDFs in cement plant stack emissions, demonstrating that these emissions are not necessarily all created by the process. The data potentially demonstrates that some of the PCDDs/PCDFs in the emissions are pre-existing dioxins and furans that are vaporized out of the kiln raw feed. This calls into question the assumption that PCDD/PCDF ...


  • Variability of NOx Emissions from Precalciner Cement Kiln Systems

    In 2003, there are forty-two precalciner kilns out of about 190 total portland cement kiln systems operating in the United States. As a class, precalciner kiln systems have the lowest annual mass emissions of the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) per ton of clinker when compared to wet, long-dry and preheater kiln systems, however, like all cement kilns, precalciner systems experience significant ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Air Rule for Cement Kilns Requires 92 Percent Cut in Mercury Emissions

    Portland cement kilns will be required to reduce emissions of mercury by 92 percent as part of an Environmental Protection Agency final rule announced Aug. 9 that imposes controls for several toxic pollutants. Although most of the emissions standards in the final rule are less stringent than what the agency had proposed in 2009, the cement industry said the cost to operate the required controls ...


    By Ohio Lumex Co., Inc.

  • Effective Temperature Control for Cement Kiln Off-Gases

    INTRODUCTIONEffective off-gas temperature control without unwanted side effects can be achieved in many cement plants with state-of-the-art evaporative spray technology. Gas temperatures have elevated in recent years from as low as 180°C to over 370°C. This is coincident with a higher proportion of 'dry' operation kilns. Evaporative cooling water sprays in conditioning towers, ducts or at the ...


  • `Variability of NOx Emissions from Precalciner Cement Kiln Systems,` presented at the 2004 AWMA annual conference

    Abstract In 2003, there were forty-two precalciner kilns out of about 190 total Portland cement kiln systems operating in the United States. As a class, precalciner kiln systems have the lowest annual mass emissions of the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) per ton of clinker when compared to wet, long-dry and preheater kiln systems; however, like all cement kilns, precalciner systems experience ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Municipal solid waste: alternative source of energy to the cement kilns in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India

    Rapid urbanisation has resulted in large–scale municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in India. Scientific and environment friendly disposal of MSW is a challenge for the municipal local bodies. A survey has been conducted regarding municipal solid waste generation from 342 local bodies in the State of Madhya Pradesh. Total generation of the MSW in the State is estimated around 4,500 MT/day ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Cementing the PC MACT

    On September 9, 2010, the U.S. EPA promulgated the final amendments to the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry (40 CFR 63 Subpart LLL), also known as the PC MACT. EPA’s self-proclaimed “historic” rulemaking includes some important implications for cement manufacturers and other sources that may be subject to ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Impact assessment of CO2 emissions caused by exergy losses in the cement sector

    In this study, global effects caused by exergetic inefficiency are examined for rotary kiln of the cement plant. For this purpose, a rotary kiln process of a cement plant in Turkey is modelled, and the annual operation data of this process is analysed. As a first step, an exergy analysis is carried out for all of the thermal processes of the cement plant. Then exergy losses and carbon dioxide ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The Impact of Alternative Fuels on the Cement Manufacturing Process

    The cement industry in Finland has a great interest in studying to what extent fuel (usually coal) can be replaced by alternative fuels, e.g. processed industrial waste materials. Alternative fuels provide opportunities for reducing production costs. Further benefits are environment-related: reduction of emissions, utilisation of energy from alternative fuels etc. A project in this field started ...


  • Continuous Mercury Monitoring Benefits Cement Plants

    Antti Heikkilä from Gasmet Technologies highlights the challenges faced by mercury monitoring in cement kilns, and explains how a new continuous mercury monitoring system addresses these issues and provides process operators with an opportunity to improve environmental performance and demonstrate compliance with forthcoming legislation. Background The production of cement ...


    By Gasmet Technologies Oy

  • Cement Manufacturing Industry - Pollution Prevention Guidelines

    Introduction Pollution Prevention Guidelines to provide technical advice and guidance to staff and consultants involved in pollution-related projects. The guidelines represent state-of-the-art thinking on how to reduce pollution emissions from the production process. In many cases, the guidelines provide numerical targets for reducing pollution, as well as maximum ...


    By The World Bank

  • A Case Study in Implementation of the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Industry at a Major Source

    The regulations at 40 CFR 63, Subpart LLL are commonly known as PC MACT because the rule establishes the maximum available control technology for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from portland cement plants in the United States. There are 188 HAPs specified in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Two classifications of HAP emitters are specified in 40 CFR 63. Major sources of HAPs ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • `A Case Study in Implementation of the NESHAPs for the Portland Cement Industry at a Major Source,` appeared in Cement Americas magazine, July/August 2003

    Introduction Located at 40 CFR 63, Subpart LLL, the Portland Cement (PC) MACT standard poses a significant regulatory hurdle to the cement industry-Facilities subject to its requirements had to complete initial performance testing and develop their first substantial semi-annual monitoring report by January 31, 2003. The final Portland Cement MACT rule was promulgated on June 14, 1999, ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Permitting of Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials at Portland Cement Plants Post NSR Reform

    Introduction One of the ways that the portland cement industry is seeking eco-efficiency gains is in waste co-processing and energy/material recovery - using the waste and by-products of other industries as fuels and raw materials for cement manufacture.1 These wastes and by¬products of other industries, such as tires and plastics (fuels) or blast furnace slag and fly ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Recovering Valuable Chemicals from Air Emissions

    Air emissions in many cases are a waste of valuable natural resources that should have become useful chemicals. In some cases the economic payback from recycling/reuse of air emissions can be almost as much a motivation to control air pollution as government regulations. Examples of recycling and reuse of air emissions are sulfur oxides emissions that can be made into sulfuric acid, cement ...


  • New laser-based dust emission monitoring system

    Abstract A new generation of continuous particulate matter concentration monitoring instruments is presented, covering a measuring range of 0 to 1000 mg/m3. The laser-based scattered light instrument gives an improved stability as well as excellent resolution in the low range. This enables high concentration measurement as well as especially low emission monitoring down to 0.01 mg/m3 with a ...


    By Sigrist-Photometer AG

  • Wastewater Treatment Plant Monitors Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Globally, little attention is paid to gaseous emissions from wastewater treatment processes. This contrasts greatly with the regulatory monitoring that is applied to the quality of water emissions from such facilities. However, in Helsinki, Finland, a large municipal wastewater treatment facility continuously monitors its emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to help in the city’s efforts to ...


    By Gasmet Technologies Oy

  • NOx in Non-Utility Industries - Part I NOx in Non-Utility Industries - Part I - Air emission origins, best control solutions and monitoring methodology for nitrogen oxides

     Problems with reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) are widespread in the general process industries. These industries, together with medium size utility and power generators contribute about 15 percent of global NOx emissions. The emission sources addressed include various heaters employed in chemical and petrochemical plants, nitric and sulfuric acid plants, glass furnaces, iron and steel mills, ...


  • PC MACT proposal may signal widespread change

    On May 6, 2009, EPA proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry (PC MACT) in response to numerous petitions and court mandates. The proposed revisions present significant challenges to the portland cement industry by establishing a new lower maximum achievable control technology (MACT) floor that would require ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Demonstrating advanced environmental management

    Everyone has high expectations when it comes to maintaining the environment. But for Castle Cement, just meeting those expectations wasn't enough. Managing stakeholder expectations is a major challenge for those implementing environmental management systems (EMS). Increased demands for transparency are driving process-based management systems and the rise in public reporting of environmental ...


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