certified emissions reduction Articles

  • Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sewage sludge aerobic compost in China

    Sewage sludge is an important contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the carbon budget of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG emissions from an auto-control sludge compost system, including direct and indirect emissions and replaceable reduction due to sludge compost being reused as fertilizer, were quantified. The results indicated that no ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • DCWASA’s certifiable, utility-wide GHG inventory

    ABSTRACT In response to increased emphasis on sustainability and the reduction of carbon/greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, The District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (DCWASA) and its program managers have developed comparisons of options intended to lower the AWTP’s GHG inventory (also called “carbon footprint”). These comparisons have used different assumptions as tothe carbon density of ...


    By Cambi Group AS

  • Calculation of energy recovery and greenhouse gas emission reduction from palm oil mill effluent treatment by an anaerobic granular-sludge process

    Conventional aerobic and low-rate anaerobic processes such as pond and open-tank systems have been widely used in wastewater treatment. In order to improve treatment efficacy and to avoid greenhouse gas emissions, conventional treatment can be upgraded to a high performance anaerobic granular-sludge system. The anaerobic granular-sludge systems are designed to capture the biogas produced, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Mandatory emissions reporting proposed in US

    As we move more and more towards an increasingly eco-conscious and environmentally friendly society, progressively steps are being taken by governments, officials and regulatory bodies to help facilitate this transition at a national level both efficiently and effectively. One such area that has received particular attention is the industrial sector; this is ultimately due to the amounts of ...


    By Intelex Technologies Inc.

  • Carbon emission trading in India and Sri Lanka

    Kyoto Protocol has established three trading mechanisms, namely International Emission Trading (IET), Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which enable industrialised countries to achieve carbon emission reduction targets as economically as possible. Out of these three mechanisms, CDM is the most important mechanism for the developing countries. CDM allows the carbon ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Minimizing Refrigerant Emissions in HVAC Systems

    Managing the operation and maintenance of a facility's air conditioning equipment has always been a major responsibility, as chillers often represent the single largest electrical load in a facility. Since the annual cost of operating chillers is a major ...


    By IHS Markit

  • California`s Achievements in Mobile Source Emissions Control

    Untitled Document Since its formation in 1967, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) has successfully launched numerous emissions reduction programs in the state. These ...

  • Offsets in the international emissions market: Do buyers get what they pay for?

    This paper analyses buyer preferences in the context of the market for emissions trading under the UNFCCC. The purpose of this paper is to investigate pricing of offsets (Certified Emissions Reductions or “CERs” under the UNFCCC) (through an empirical survey of two segments of the authorized CER buyer market) to understand the relationship between buyer preferences for CER carbon offsets in the ...

  • The Kyoto Protocol: Understanding what it means to enterprise carbon emissions management

    The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement that was created out of the non-binding United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The UNFCCC is an international treaty that was created to encourage participating countries to stabilize the level of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the earth's atmosphere. It was created out of the UN “Earth Summit” in Rio De Jeneiro in 1992. As the ...


    By Verisae

  • The US and The Kyoto Protocol: A possible hybrid approach carbon emissions mitigation

    Stepping Into The 21st Century With Mandatory Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reporting In The United StatesOne hundred and eighty one nations have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol. Several countries including Afghanistan which the United States is of course working with closely as they try and form a stable democracy have yet to take a formal position on the Kyoto ...


    By Verisae

  • The potential of GHG emission savings for programmatic CDM by municipal solid waste composting in the Western Province - Sri Lanka

    The Western Province (WP) of Sri Lanka, as the most populated province in the country is burdened with a high level of municipal solid waste generation. Out of the 48 administrative local authorities within the WP, only 16 local authorities are practicing municipal solid waste composting. All other local authorities are practicing the most common method of MSW disposal; open dumping. The study ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Improving the clean development mechanism with sustainability-rating and rewarding system

    As the world contemplates a post-Kyoto Protocol climate change policy architecture, some key observations of the clean development mechanism (CDM) remind us that climate change policies should be linked more closely to the promotion of sustainability. A sustainability-rated CDM (SR-CDM) is proposed in this paper; it applies the gold standard as a way of assessing the sustainability value of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Frontiers in trade: the clean development mechanism and the general agreement on trade in services

    By authorising investment, technology transfer, project development and emissions trading between developed and developing countries, the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) will present new opportunities for international trade. Projects hosted in developing countries will result in "Certified Emissions Reductions" (CERs), which may be used to assist developed countries ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • FIFA Word Cup - Case Study

    Coca Cola, sponsor of the FIFA World Cup, in collaboration with the Centre for Sustainability and Excellence (CSE), certified the three-day visit of the Cup to Greece as a Climate Neutral Event. Included within the calculations of the emitted greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the transportation of the World Cup trophy, the press conference that took place on the 10th of April, and the promotional ...

  • Clean Development Mechanism Projects

    What are Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Projects? The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an element of the Kyoto Protocol that generates Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) from eligible climate change projects in developing countries. CERs are valuable assets and can be used in compliance markets such as the EU ETS, or in national ...


    By thinkstep

  • On the up

    The global carbon markets traded an estimated € 92 billion worth of carbon credits in 2008. 4.9 billion t of CO2 equivalent (CO2e) of greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions changed hands under the various international, regional, national and sub-national carbon trading schemes that together make up the global carbon marketplace. These figures demonstrate the phenomenal expansion and maturation of the ...

  • Food, the carbon story

    What do milk, bread and orange juice have in common? One answer is that they have all had their carbon footprints assessed and the products have been labelled by the Carbon Trust. Over the last five years, the Carbon Trust has certified the carbon footprints of a wide range of food products, and worked with a variety of companies to help them understand the carbon content of their food. As a ...


    By Carbon Trust

  • The US Initiative on Joint Implementation

    More than 150 countries are now party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which seeks, as its ultimate objective, to stabilise atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. As a step toward this goal, all Parties are to take measures to mitigate climate change and to promote ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Ruling on the "crunch issues" of land use, land-use change and forestry: impacts on project viability

    Carbon sequestration in forests is undoubtedly one of the most controversial issues of the Kyoto Protocol. Whilst there is agreement that temporary carbon storage in forests contributes to delaying climate change, there is still much controversy about the rules and procedures that should be implemented to give credits to afforestation and reforestation activities under the Clean Development ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • A major Gold Miner goes into the Valuable Gas Business

    Gold Fields Limited (NYSE and JSE- GFI) takes part in worldwide practice of capping greenhouse emissions and trading their value on global markets. The Swiss plant manufacturer Hofstetter Umwelttechnik AG (Hofstetter) has been awarded the contract to build a high quality degassing and flaring unit for the gold major Gold Fields. Gold Fields, as the ...


    By Hofstetter BV

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