chamber-flux monitoring Articles

  • Continuous monitoring of moisture present inside a process chamber

    Problem Statement Moisture inside a process chamber is a big silent killer during wafer production. When production yield goes down, it is hard to pinpoint the source of the problem. Most of the time wafers need to be sent to labs for analysis, while production is stopped. If the problem is related to a high level of moisture inside the reactor, there are several factors that can cause ...


    By CIC Photonics

  • A Calibration Chamber for Cohesive Soils

    The paper describes the design and performance of a calibration chamber system for testing in-situ test devices in cohesive soils. Techniques for preparing “undisturbed” clay specimens from a slurry and consolidating them under zero lateral strain K0 conditions are presented. The chamber was used for strain controlled model pressurementer tests during which pore pressure was monitored. Duplicate ...


    By ASTM International

  • Flux-step method for the assessment of operational conditions in a submerged membrane bioreactor

    A flux-step method was used for monitoring the pressure variation in a solids separation membrane at different operating conditions. A submerged membrane bioreactor pilot plant, used during the short-term tests, was used to purify actual restaurant wastewater. The influence of membrane backwash and relaxation on the variation of pressure variation was also evaluated. In order to reduce the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Radiation Monitors and Meters

    Light Description and Applications The light meter is a portable unit designed to measure visible, UV, and near-UV light in the workplace. (The CTC has a UV light meter available through its loan program, ALEP.) The light meter is capable of reading any optical unit of energy or power level if the appropriate detector has been calibrated with the meter. The spectral range of the instrument is ...

  • Pushing the limits: optimizing membrane plants via correlating fouling with critical flux

    Abstract The concept of establishing direct correlations between the operating flux, represented by the conversion, and fouling potential of membrane systems has always been of tremendous interest to membrane technology researchers, plant end-users and membrane manufacturers since the advent of membrane technology’s commercial applications worldwide some forty years ago. Several ...


    By MASAR Technologies, Inc.

  • Argon and Nitrogen in Glove Boxes and Blanketed Chambers case study

    Application Moisture is measured in argon or nitrogen when it is used as a blanketing gas in glove boxes and other blanketed applications. Problem The presence of moisture in the blanket gas for a glove box causes serious contamination problems especially when welding or conducting moisture-sensitive chemical reactions. Moisture causes product contamination, ...

  • Preparation of Large-Size Cohesive Specimens for Calibration Chamber Testing

    This paper describes the design of an automated slurry consolidometer and calibration chamber system used to prepare largesize cohesive soil specimens for testing in-situ devices, model foundations, and ground anchors. A two-stage technique for the preparattion of homogeneous cohesive specimens subjected to a known stress history is described. Briefly summarized are the data acquisition/control ...


    By ASTM International

  • Hydrogeologic Investigation of VOC Contamination in Bedrock Using Mass Flux Analysis – A Case History

    Courtesy of US EPA and NGWA proceedings of the 2004 U.S. EPA/NGWA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, September 13-15, 2004, Portland, Maine AbstractA fractured bedrock system was investigated using a combination of hydrogeologic methods to minimize the number and depth of bedrock wells installed during the investigation. These ...


    By Arcadis

  • Advanced monitoring method for air environment

    The Ogawa Passive Sampler is one of the only known methods of passive simultaneous monitoring of more than two components in the air. The first advantage of Ogawa Sampler is to have two chambers with the same configuration where one can place two different kinds of collection filter pads. In the case of simultaneous collection of NO and NO2, The  O2 collection filter foated with triethanolamine ...


    By Ogawa & Company, USA, Inc.

  • Real-Time Membrane Fouling Monitoring

    The Port Hueneme Water Agency (PHWA) has been operating a municipal drinking water treatment plant designed to be a Brackish Water Reclamation Demonstration Facility. The facility consists of 3 separate side-by-side full scale systems or trains, each representing a major membrane separation process: nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and electro dialysis reversal (EDR). Both the NF and RO ...


    By MASAR Technologies, Inc.

  • Diurnal fluctuation of zinc concentration in metal polluted rivers and its potential impact on water quality and flux estimates

    Diurnal fluctuations of metals have been observed in the South Tyne river catchment, UK, in both upland tributaries and major river reaches. Zinc exhibits the most pronounced cyclicity, with concentrations increasing during the night to a maximum near 05:00 before decreasing during the day. This trend is the inverse of pH and temperature observations, which are thought to be the predominant ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Improving the reliability of closed chamber methodologies for methane emissions measurement in treatment wetlands

    Non-homogeneous mixing of methane (NHM) within closed chambers was studied under laboratory conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a PVC vented chamber of 5.3 litres of effective volume fitted with a power-adjustable 12 V fan. NHM within the chamber was studied according to fan position (top vs lateral), fan airflow strength (23 vs 80 cubic feet per minute) and the mixing time before ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Recycled CRT Panel Glass as an Energy Reducing Fluxing Body Additiive in Heavy Clay Construction Products. GLA35-005

    The use of recycled glass as a heavy clay product fluxing body additive is not a new concept. CERAM Building Technology (CBT) have recently completed a major WRAP funded brick industry project (WRAP project GLA2-018) investigating the energy saving and emissions reducing benefits of using powdered recycled container glass for just such purposes. In addition CBT have undertaken smaller ...

  • Monitoring the performance of moisture purifiers for process gases

    Problem Statement Moisture purifiers are a big aid in keeping moisture levels under control inside a process chamber. They are provided by manufacturers with certain life expectancies, which vary depending on the moisture content of the gas being purified. As a result, it is difficult to determine which gases have a high moisture content and which moisture purifier is becoming ...


    By CIC Photonics

  • Where Can I Buy an Oxygen Monitor?

    You know you need an O2 monitor, but where do you get one, and how much does it cost?  Selling oxygen deficiency monitors is our business, so we've rounded up information to choose the right oxygen deficiency monitor for your needs.An oxygen deficiency monitor should be placed anywhere that inert gases, such as argon or nitrogen, are used or stored. Industries ...

  • Monitoring mixing dynamics in Toolik Lake, Alaska

    Toolik Lake is 130 miles south of Prudhoe Bay in northern Alaska. It is one of the main monitoring sites of the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) project and a site for studies led by Sally MacIntyre of the University of California investigating the linkages between hydrodynamics and ecosystem function. Both studies are funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. It is classified as ...

  • Predicting combined sewer overflows chamber depth using artificial neural networks with rainfall radar data

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) represent a common feature in combined urban drainage systems and are used to discharge excess water to the environment during heavy storms. To better understand the performance of CSOs, the UK water industry has installed a large number of monitoring systems that provide data for these assets. This paper presents research into the prediction of the hydraulic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Gas Monitoring for Ventilation Control and Energy Management

    The growing demand for underground and enclosed parking and maintenance garages (resulting from limitations on land availability) has increased the awareness and need for proper ventilation and control systems. In addition, increased health and safety programs have only added to the concerns of toxic and combustible gases in confined or enclosed spaces. Historically, ventilation and make-up air ...


    By Arjay Engineering Ltd.

  • Raw water intake monitoring - Case Study

    The Situation Hydrocarbons in municipal water supplies, including fresh water and desalination systems, are commonly limited to less than 1 part per million. Surface water from rivers, lakes, or the sea with marine traffic, nearby pipelines, or regular flooding can be contaminated by hydrocarbons. Freshwater treatment systems can be damaged by hydrocarbons or allow them to pass through ...

  • A large‐scale field trial of thin‐layer capping of PCDD/F‐contaminated sediments: Sediment‐to‐water fluxes up to five years post‐amendment

    The longer‐term effect (3‐5 y) of thin‐layer capping on in situ sediment‐to‐surface water fluxes was monitored in a large‐scale field experiment in the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) contaminated Grenlandfjords, Norway (four trial plots of 10,000 to 40,000 m2 at 30 to 100 m water depth). Active caps (designed thickness 2.5 cm) were established in two fjords, consisting ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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