chlorination control Articles

  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Dangers of Chlorine

    Most of us have grown up with the idea that whiter whites (and brighter colors) mean cleaner clothes. We continue to use chlorine products with abandon to whiten and to disinfect. We write on white paper and bathe in and drink chlorinated water. After all, who wants bacteria-infested water? In our society, chlorine is ubiquitous-and so are its side effects. In fact, the long-term residual effects ...

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons - Case Study

    Example: Pharmaceutical industry Similar tasks: Chemical industry The Pharmaceutical industry uses different processes to create chlorinated hydrocarbons. In a regenerative thermal oxidiser (RTO) the chlorinated organic contaminants are destroyed at high temperature. Chlorinated hydrocarbons - among others - are converted into hydrogen chloride which produces a ...

  • Controoling chlorine costs

    The most widespread disinfectant used in the treatment of drinking water is chlorine, which can be applied in a variety of ways. History has taught us that, in bacteriological terms, chlorinating water is a proven way of disinfecting drinking water. After all, more than 75 years have passed since chlorine was used to disinfect drinking water for the first time. Many years of experience have shown ...


  • Chlorine Theory & Measurement

    Chlorine, dissolved in liquid is one of the most effective and economical semi-killers for the treatment of water to make it potable or safe to drink. Chlorine's powerful disinfectant qualities come from its ability to bond with and destroy the outer surfaces of bacteria and viruses. Drinking water chlorination is one of the most widely used methods to safeguard chinking water supplies. In ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...

  • Effect of advanced water treatment on behaviour of residual chlorine and development of chlorine control method in distribution systems

    The behaviour of residual chlorine concentration in drinking water treated by the mid-chlorination or the advanced water treatment (AWT) was investigated. The AWT removes dissolved organic matter more than the mid-chlorination, thus the rate of residual chlorine reduction is decreased. The analysis of chlorine concentration data measured by automated continuous monitoring devices revealed that ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby ...


    By True Blue Technologies, Inc.

  • Chlorination for Dreissena polymorpha control: old war-horse for the new pest?

    The various chlorination regimes employed in industrial cooling water systems to control Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) are illustrated. Literature data on lethal and sublethal effects of chlorination on D. polymorpha are presented and gaps in knowledge are identified. The data show that various factors can influence the chlorine tolerance of D. polymorpha, among which mussel species, mussel size, ...


    By Aquator B.V.

  • Security Aspects of the Free Chlorine Vs Monochloramine Debate for Disinfection by Product Control

     Introduction: In recent years, there has been a move away from the utilization of free chlorine to maintain a residual level of disinfectant in the distribution system towards the use of monochloramine. The reason behind this change is to decrease the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which are created when the free chlorine reacts with organic material in the water. The use ...

  • Control of trichloramine formation by two-step chlorination in water purification processes

    Chlorinous odour in drinking water is of great concern in Japan. Some water utilities use trichloramine (NCl3) as an index of chlorinous odour and are attempting to control its levels in drinking water. In the present study, the effects of two-step chlorination, involving addition of chlorine twice, on NCl3 control were investigated. The results regarding ammonia (NH3), ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Trihalomethane reduction in drinkable water by controlled chlorination and use of hydrogen peroxide

    The reduction of trihalomethane (THM) formation in the water treatment process by a controlled chlorination of ammonia and successive quenching with hydrogen peroxide has been studied. The optimum values of the process parameters have been determined with a calculation programme that makes use of the kinetic constants determined with the water to be treated. The obtained data have been verified ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Pulse-Chlorination®, the Best Available Technique in Macrofouling Mitigation Using Chlorine

    In 1998, KEMA developed a new chlorination method called Pulse-Chlorination®. It enables optimal antifouling treatment with a minimum use of chlorine. This technology is based on the principle that in general mussels and clams have a re-covery period after exposure to chlorination before opening fully and restarting filtration. The method takes advantage of this recovery time by using short ...


    By Sweco Nederland BV

  • Case study - Chlorinated groundwater treatment

    Overview A Fortune 50 company implemented a remedial project to collect and treat polluted groundwater from a site in Central New York, preventing the mitigation of impacted groundwater from flowing into local waterways. An engineering and construction firm was hired to design and build an effective, efficient groundwater treatment system. Collection of the polluted water would be ...

  • Chlorinated solvents: methylene chloride and TCE

    Introduction This paper presents the results of a scaled and phased approach to source remediation of high concentrations of recalcitrant chlorinated solvent compounds via soil vapor extraction (SVE) and vapor treatment at a Site in Southern California. Phase I began with refrigerated condensation (C3) in order to achieve high mass removal rates to reduce lifecycle costs and time ...

  • Case study - Chlorinated groundwater treatment

    Problem A Fortune 50 company implemented a remedial project to collect and treat polluted groundwater from a site in Central New York, preventing the mitigation of impacted groundwater from flowing into local waterways. An engineering and construction firm was hired to design and build an effective, efficient groundwater treatment system. Collection of the polluted water would be done ...

  • Chlorine gas protection - Case Study

    Application As part of a scheme to bring safe drinking water to 1.5 million people in Omdurman City, part of Greater Khartoum, Biwater International was appointed by the Government of Sudan to undertake a major turnkey design and construction project. Chlorine is the conventional means of water disinfection, so Biwater brought in ERG to design and manufacture the emergency gas ...

  • Key Operating Strategies for Chlorine Disinfection Operating Systems

    ABSTRACTChlorine has been used as a standard for disinfecting wastewater for many years. While being the standard There are many levels of automation for control of disinfection. To select the best control approach for your facility both control strategies and chlorination chemistry must be understood. Permit conditions must also be fully identified; organism concentrations and operational data. ...

  • 9 key parameters for the Chlorine and Soda production industry

    Large-scale production of chlorine involves several steps and many pieces of equipment. The plant also simultaneously produces sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)hydrogen gas. A typical plant consists of brine production/treatment, cell operations, chlorine cooling & drying, chlorine compression & liquefaction, liquid chlorine storage & loading, caustic handling, evaporation, storage ...


    By AquaGas Pty Ltd

  • Bioremediation of chlorinated phenols with INTEROX® case study

    The mass balance enabed the evaluation of the individual contribution of the flushing and the biodegradation processes to the global remediation. Initially, flushing was the main process of remediation. After the deveopment of in situ conditions favorab e for the aerobic biodegradation, the main process of contamination remova is bioremediation contributing for 71% to the global contaminant ...


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