chlorine analysis Articles

  • Confirming Natural Attenuation Processes at a Coastal Site - Case Study

    Past waste disposal practices at a California coastal site resulted in a groundwater plume containing CVOCs (mainly chlorinated ethenes [CEs] and 1,1-dichloroethane) migrating offshore towards a marine harbor. CVOCs are present in the sediment porewater adjacent to the shoreline, but concentrations decreased significantly between 2000 and 2015, and NA in the marine sediments was suspected. To ...


    By SIREM

  • Chlorine resistant membrane: the mechanism of membrane degradation by chlorine

    Polyamide reverse osmosis membrane used successfully for water desalination is made from the interfacial reaction of meta-phenylenediamine (MPD) with trimesoyl chloride. One problem with the membrane is that its performance is deteriorated upon prolonged exposure to chlorine often used for disinfecting feed water. ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis show chlorine reacts with the amide hydrogen and is ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Standard Chlorine of Delaware Remediation

    By designing a 70-foot deep barrier wall, Black & Veatch was able to cut off contaminant source areas from a creek near New Castle, Delaware. The groundwater treatment system that Black & Veatch designed prevents site contamination from reaching the underlying drinking water aquifer. The Standard Chlorine of Delaware Site is a 65 acre area including an abandoned chlorobenzene ...


    By Black & Veatch Corporation

  • Low Background Solid Phase Extraction and Capillary GC Analysis of Chlorinated Pesticides

    Solid phase extraction has been the main focus for sample preparation for monitoring semivolatiles, including pesticides, in aqueous hazardous waste samples because it provides rapid, on-site sample preparation and analysis.   Supelco's ENVI-8 polumerically bonded octylsilane-silica packing provides good performance for solid phase extraction of pesticides for aqueous samples.   ...


    By MilliporeSigma

  • Chlorine resistant membrane and the mechanism of membrane

    Polyamide reverse osmosis membrane used successfully for water desalination is made from the interfacial reaction of meta-phenylenediamine (MPD) with trimesoyl chloride. One problem with the membrane is that its performance is deteriorated upon prolonged exposure to chlorine often used for disinfecting feed water. ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis show chlorine reacts with the amide hydrogen and is ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Drinking water: the problem of chlorinous odours

    Chlorinous off-flavours in drinking water are a leading cause of complaints to Australian water utilities and other utilities worldwide. The occurrence and causes of chlorinous odours in drinking water were investigated with the use of an odour panel, trained using a modified flavour profile analysis technique. A new system for classifying water types according to the causes of chlorinous odours ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Catalytic oxidation and spectroscopic analysis of simulated wastewater containing acid chrome blue K by using chlorine dioxide as oxidant

    An activated carbon-MnO2 catalyst was prepared by the dipping-calcination method using activated carbon as catalyst support. The catalyst was used for the catalytic oxidation of simulated acid chrome blue K wastewater. The COD removal efficiency and decolor efficiency by catalytic oxidation are 72.0% and 87.8%, respectively, at the condition of wastewater's COD is 2,418 mg/L, the optimum pH value ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chemistry of Chlorine Application and Production for the Disinfection of Water and Wastewater

     ABSTRACT A thorough understanding of chlorine and sodium hypochlorite chemistry is essential in optimizing their usage in disinfection of water and wastewater. High price of both chemicals and hazards involved in their transportation to plant sites have prompted many utilities to consider generation of these chemical on-site. A detailed discussion of the critical engineering concepts ...

  • Analysis of PCBs in emission samples: non ortho, mono-ortho and homolog totals by level of chlorination

    IntroductionPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the most widespread persistent organic pollutants, identified in every component of the global ecosystem. A production of approximately 2 * 10 9 Kg technical PCB occurred form 1930 to the late 1970 1 and the total amount released into the environment is estimated in 370. 000 2 tonnes. Twelve of the possible 209 PCBs are non- and mono-ortho ...


    By Monitoring Systems GmbH

  • Modeling and analysis of chlorine dioxide, chlorite, and chlorate propagation in a drinking water distribution system

    The drinking water distribution system of Cremona, in the north of Italy, was monitored for 6 years (2006–2011) analyzing chlorine dioxide, chlorite, and chlorate concentrations. The software Epanet 2.0 (USEPA) was applied to the distribution system. The mixing zone of the water coming from the two drinking water treatment plants, respectively located to the west and east of the city, was ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis of PCBs in emission samples: non ortho, mono-ortho and homolog totals by level of chlorination

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the most widespread persistent organic pollutants, identified in every component of the global ecosystem. A production of approximately 2 * 10 9 Kg technical PCB occurred form 1930 to the late 1970 1 and the total amount released into the environment is estimated in 370. 000 2 tonnes. Twelve of the possible 209 PCBs are non- and mono-ortho substituted ...


    By Monitoring Systems GmbH

  • Effect of gaseous chlorine dioxide on indoor microbial contaminants

    Traditional and modern techniques for bioaerosol enumeration were used to evaluate the relative efficiency of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in reducing the indoor microbial contamination under field and laboratory conditions. The field study was performed in a highly microbially contaminated house, which had had an undetected roof leak for an extended period of time and exhibited large areas of ...

  • Effect of advanced water treatment on behaviour of residual chlorine and development of chlorine control method in distribution systems

    The behaviour of residual chlorine concentration in drinking water treated by the mid-chlorination or the advanced water treatment (AWT) was investigated. The AWT removes dissolved organic matter more than the mid-chlorination, thus the rate of residual chlorine reduction is decreased. The analysis of chlorine concentration data measured by automated continuous monitoring devices revealed that ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cost implications of hydrogen donor selection for in-situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents

    The use of enhanced anaerobic bioremediation for treatment of chlorinated solvents in groundwater has increased at a rapid rate within the past three years. Since there are a number of different hydrogen donors that can potentially be used, it is important that practitioners understand the cost implications of the hydrogen donor(s) selected for the project. A comparative economic analysis is ...


    By Terra Systems, Inc. (TSI)

  • Trimetallic Pd/Fe/Al particles for catalytic dechlorination of chlorinated organic contaminants

    Zero-valent aluminum based trimetallic particles comprising a combination of catalytically effective amounts (1 wt%) of palladium and zero-valent iron on the aluminum surface were synthesized and tested for the dechlorination of chlorinated methanes in batch reactors. XRD analysis indicated the trimetallic particles present in zero-valent form of all three components. Trimetallic Pd/Fe/Al ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • US EPA Method 515 Chlorinated Acids on Equity-1701

    The potential health effects associated with many chlorinated acid herbicides has led to regulations regarding their use. US EPA method 515 describes the GC/ECD analysis of these compounds as their methyl ester derivatives in ground and drinking water, and lists a 1701-type capillary for use as a secondary column. In this application, 15 out of the 16 herbicides listed in method 515 were resolved ...


    By MilliporeSigma

  • US EPA Method 8081 Chlorinated Pesticides on Equity-1701

    US EPA method 8081 describes the GC/ECD analysis of organochlorine pesticides and requires the use of a primary and confirmation column. In this application, 20 compounds listed in method 8081, plus two surrogates, were analyzed on the Equity-1701 column. These same run conditions will separate all 22 compounds on an Equity-5 column of similar dimensions. The elution order is different between ...


    By MilliporeSigma

  • Factors Affecting Cyanide Generation in Chlorinated Wastewater Effluent Matrix

    ABSTRACTFalse positives for cyanide analysis in wastewaters have been reported. We examined the effects of storage time at high pH and of pH adjustments on the cyanide levels. Cyanide levels changed within the holding time allowed by Standard Methods. We also studied the difference in cyanide levels using two disinfection conditions -- breakpoint chlorination and chloramination. Glycine was used ...

  • Elemental Analysis - Automation Without Limits

    Fully automated carbon, sulfur, chlorine, and nitrogen analysis in liquid and solid samples is possible! Thanks to the multi-matrix sampler you have the security of being able to meet the most varied analytical challenges in next to no time with one single system - the multi EA® 5000. Its intelligent construction facilitates the highest sample throughput ever in organic elemental analysis. ...


    By Analytik Jena AG

  • Accidental Releases Analysis for Toxic Aqueous Solutions

    As a result of the cluster rule for the control of the hazardous air pollutants, pulp and paper mills are in the process of further substituting chlorine with aqueous chlorine dioxide for their bleaching operations. In addition, ammonia aqueous solutions are applied by paper mills in various processes. An evaporation model including both heat and mass transfer for aqueous solutions has been ...

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