chlorine analyzer Articles

  • Water Treatment Optimization - Case Study

    Drinking water treatment in North America has stringent requirements for effluent water quality, with a great amount of attention being drawn to the presence of hazardous disinfection by-products (DBPs) persisting through water distribution systems. The operation of water treatment plants involves addition of various mixing agents to help with coagulation and settling of organics in the raw water ...


    By MANTECH

  • Optimal use of chlorine in water distribution networks based on specific locations of booster chlorination: analyzing conditions in Mexico

    Water distribution networks (WDNs) could present problems of pathogen intrusion that affect the health of consumers. One solution to diminish this risk is to add more disinfectant to the water at the drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). However, this increases the cost of water treatment and may also cause the formation of trihalomethanes. Mexico has the largest bottled water market in the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Standard Chlorine of Delaware Remediation

    By designing a 70-foot deep barrier wall, Black & Veatch was able to cut off contaminant source areas from a creek near New Castle, Delaware. The groundwater treatment system that Black & Veatch designed prevents site contamination from reaching the underlying drinking water aquifer. The Standard Chlorine of Delaware Site is a 65 acre area including an abandoned chlorobenzene ...


    By Black & Veatch Corporation

  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Case study - Chlorinated groundwater treatment

    Overview A Fortune 50 company implemented a remedial project to collect and treat polluted groundwater from a site in Central New York, preventing the mitigation of impacted groundwater from flowing into local waterways. An engineering and construction firm was hired to design and build an effective, efficient groundwater treatment system. Collection of the polluted water would be ...

  • Case study - Chlorinated groundwater treatment

    Problem A Fortune 50 company implemented a remedial project to collect and treat polluted groundwater from a site in Central New York, preventing the mitigation of impacted groundwater from flowing into local waterways. An engineering and construction firm was hired to design and build an effective, efficient groundwater treatment system. Collection of the polluted water would be done ...

  • Amperometric Free Chlorine Measurement without pH Compensation

    Accurate measurement and control of free chlorine in water is critical in many applications. Amperometric sensors are a popular alternative to colorimetric analyzers since the measurement is continuous and no reagents are required, however most sensors are extremely sensitive to pH fluctuations and have a limited pH range where they will function. Expensive pH measurement and control is one ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • US EPA Method 8081 Chlorinated Pesticides on Equity-1701

    US EPA method 8081 describes the GC/ECD analysis of organochlorine pesticides and requires the use of a primary and confirmation column. In this application, 20 compounds listed in method 8081, plus two surrogates, were analyzed on the Equity-1701 column. These same run conditions will separate all 22 compounds on an Equity-5 column of similar dimensions. The elution order is different between ...


    By MilliporeSigma

  • Microbiological quality of chlorinated water after storage in ceramic pots

    Household water treatment with sodium hypochlorite has been shown to reduce self-reported diarrheal disease in developing countries. Reported hypochlorite use, time since treatment, total chlorine residual (TCR), and E. coli concentration results from 589 household surveys in rural Kenya were analyzed to quantify the effect of exceeding recommended 24 hour post-treatment water storage time ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of chlorine decay models under transient conditions in a water distribution system

    Residual chlorine concentration decreases along distribution networks because of factors such as water quality, physical properties of the pipeline, and hydraulic conditions. Hydraulic conditions are primarily governed by transient events generated by valve modulation or pumping action. We investigate the impact of transient events on the rate of chlorine decay under various flow conditions. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Factors Affecting Cyanide Generation in Chlorinated Wastewater Effluent Matrix

    ABSTRACTFalse positives for cyanide analysis in wastewaters have been reported. We examined the effects of storage time at high pH and of pH adjustments on the cyanide levels. Cyanide levels changed within the holding time allowed by Standard Methods. We also studied the difference in cyanide levels using two disinfection conditions -- breakpoint chlorination and chloramination. Glycine was used ...

  • Long-Term Sustainability of Reductive Dechlorination Reactions at Chlorinated Solvents Sites

    The sustainability of biodegradation reactions is of interest at Type 1 chlorinated solvent sites where monitored natural attenuation is being considered as a remedial alternative. Type 1 chlorinated solvent sites are sites where anthropogenic electron donors (such as landfill leachate or fermentable organics in the waste materials) exist with dissolved chlorinated solvents, resulting in ...


  • Technical protocol for evaluating natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents in ground water

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is charged by Congress with protecting the Nation’s land, air, and water resources. Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the Agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet these mandates, EPA’s research ...


    By RNAS Remediation Products

  • Online Analyzers Improve Control of Chloramination Processes in Milwaukee

    The Milwaukee Water Works is a national leader in providing high quality drinking water and monitoring water quality. Since 1998, it has invested $227 million in its infrastructure, from treatment plants to distribution systems, to ensure high quality drinking water and reliable supply. The Milwaukee Water Works treats Lake Michigan water with Ozone gas as a primary disinfectant because it ...

  • Modeling and analysis of chlorine dioxide, chlorite, and chlorate propagation in a drinking water distribution system

    The drinking water distribution system of Cremona, in the north of Italy, was monitored for 6 years (2006–2011) analyzing chlorine dioxide, chlorite, and chlorate concentrations. The software Epanet 2.0 (USEPA) was applied to the distribution system. The mixing zone of the water coming from the two drinking water treatment plants, respectively located to the west and east of the city, was ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Choosing Right Methods for the Chlorine Disinfections to Meet Daily E. coli Limit in a Large Nitrification Plant

    Indiana is one of a few states that has replaced a weekly Fecal limit with a daily E. coli limit as an indicator organism for wastewater disinfection. It has been accepted that E. coli is a better organism indicator. However, there is still not an EPA approved method for enumerating E. coli in wastewater. Indiana has adopted several different methods for use by wastewater treatment plants for ...

  • Trends of Chlorinated Organic Contaminants in Great Lakes Trout and Walleye from 1970 to 1998

    Abstract  Levels of chlorinated organic contaminants in predator fish have been monitored annually in each of the Great Lakes since the 1970s. This article updates earlier reports with data from 1991 to 1998 for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and (Lake Erie only) walleye (Sander vitreus) to provide a record that now extends nearly 30 years. Whole fish were analyzed for a number of ...


    By Springer

  • FTIR resolution requirements for industrial gas analyzers

    FTIR Spectroscopy is a widely used technique for gas analyses in industrial applications. It is a technique used in the semiconductor industry for measuring the purity of cleaning, etching, and epi-treatment gases used with various process tools, reactors, and abatement devices. Among chemical companies and R&D facilities, FTIR is applied to combustion thermodynamics and stack gas emissions; ...


    By CIC Photonics, Inc.

  • Field Detection of Chlorinated Alkenes in Well Water using the FROG-4000 Portable GC - Case Study

    Introduction Defiant’s FROG 4000, a portable GCPID system, was used to identify and determine the concentration of chlorinated alkenes in several extraction wells located in Tacoma Washington. Split samples were taken at each well and sent to an offsite lab for analysis. This case study examines the field exercise and highlights the high degree of agreement between the offsite lab and ...


    By Northern ANI Solutions Ltd.

  • Surface Decontamination of Poly-Chlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) using DeconGel� Formulations 1101 and 1102

    OBJECTIVE:  Surface decontamination determination of DeconGel® formulations 1101 and 1102 on aluminum, carbon steel, and concrete surfaces contaminated with PCB (Aroclor 1016) oil following a modified version of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 Method 8082A, “Determination of PCBs by Gas Chromatography”. ...


    By KT Chemicals, Inc.

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