chlorine dosing Articles

  • Four years experience with a new chlorine dosing regime against macrofouling

    A new method of chlorination called Pulse-Chlorination® was developed by KEMA in 1998. Pulse- Chlorination is based on the principle that mussels and clams, in general have a recovery period before full opening and start filtering after exposure to a chlorination period. The chlorination method takes advantage of this recovery time by using short successive periods of chlorination, alternating ...


    By Sweco Nederland BV

  • Controoling chlorine costs

    The most widespread disinfectant used in the treatment of drinking water is chlorine, which can be applied in a variety of ways. History has taught us that, in bacteriological terms, chlorinating water is a proven way of disinfecting drinking water. After all, more than 75 years have passed since chlorine was used to disinfect drinking water for the first time. Many years of experience have shown ...


  • Chlorine Dioxide – dispelling the myths

    The internet is an incredibly useful research tool. It allows us to source and share information instantaneously. Unfortunately, this means that myths and misconceptions can spread very quickly and obscure the truth. In this post, we aim to tackle some of the myths that surround chlorine dioxide, and how this differs from our chlorine dioxide based product CleanOxide. Myth 1: Pure chlorine ...


    By NW Solutions

  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...


    By ClearWater Tech LLC

  • Pulse-Chlorination®, the Best Available Technique in Macrofouling Mitigation Using Chlorine

    In 1998, KEMA developed a new chlorination method called Pulse-Chlorination®. It enables optimal antifouling treatment with a minimum use of chlorine. This technology is based on the principle that in general mussels and clams have a re-covery period after exposure to chlorination before opening fully and restarting filtration. The method takes advantage of this recovery time by using short ...


    By Sweco Nederland BV

  • Effect of wastewater chlorination on endocrine disruptor removal

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds of mainly anthropogenic origin that interfere with the endocrine system of animals and humans thus causing a series of disorders. Wastewater treatment plants are one of the major routes for transporting such chemicals to the water courses. In the context of this study, several chlorination batch tests were performed in order to assess the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • De-chlorination Application – Proctor and Gamble, NC., USA.

    Hanovia Photon UV Systems. Installation Date 2001 System Configuration – Two Hanovia Photon PMD320G4 Dechlorination and Disinfection Systems, complete with Certified UVC Lamps, Validated UV Monitors, Lamp Power Switching, UV Dose Control, and optional Quartz Sleeve Automatic Wipers. Variable Flow: Up to 180 usgpm (40.9m3/hr) per stream Water Quality: Pre R.O. filtered city ...

  • An Observational Study on the Effectiveness of Point-Of-Use Chlorination

    Although the efficacy of chlorine disinfection under controlled laboratory conditions is well known, the effectiveness of chlorine under field point-of-use (POU) conditions is still not clearly understood and may be impacted by a variety of factors. This study evaluated the effectiveness of POU chlorine disinfection in rural Ecuador under typical use conditions and compared this effectiveness ...

  • The synergistic effect of Escherichia coli inactivation by sequential disinfection with low level chlorine dioxide followed by free chlorine

    To the best of our knowledge, there was little information available on pathogen removal using low level disinfectant followed by free chlorine in sequential disinfection (SD). This study investigated Escherichia coli inactivation by four types of disinfection: single step disinfection (SSD), SD, traditional sequential disinfection (TSD) and mixed disinfectant disinfection (MDD). Results ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Point-of-use chlorination of turbid water: results from a field study in Tanzania

    Household-based chlorine disinfection is widely effective against waterborne bacteria and viruses, and may be among the most inexpensive and accessible options for household water treatment. The microbiological effectiveness of chlorine is limited, however, by turbidity. In Tanzania, there are no guidelines on water chlorination at household level, and limited data on whether dosing guidelines ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Global experiences in optimizing biofouling control through Pulse-Chlorination®

    ABSTRACT Cooling water systems provide optimal conditions for settlement and growth of fouling species, e.g. mussels, oysters and barnacles. Excessive biofouling results in major operational upsets and even unplanned shutdowns. Controlling micro- and macrofouling organisms in once-through cooling water systems is key for safe reliable operation. For this, chlorination is globally still ...


    By Sweco Nederland BV

  • Factors affecting trihalomethane formation and speciation during chlorination of reclaimed water

    A hybrid process with membrane bioreactor (MBR) and powdered activated carbon (PAC), PAC/MBR, was used for real municipal wastewater treatment and reuse. The roles of chlorine dose, contact time, pH and bromide in trihalomethane (THM) formation and speciation during chlorination of the reclaimed water were investigated. Total trihalomethane (TTHM) yield exponentially increased to maximum with ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Inactivation of human adenovirus by sequential disinfection with an alternative UV technology and free chlorine

    There has been growing concern over human exposure to adenoviruses through drinking water due to the extreme resistance of human adenoviruses to the traditional UV technology (low-pressure (LP) UV). As an effort to develop an effective treatment strategy against human adenoviruses in drinking water, we determined the effectiveness of sequential disinfection with an alternative UV technology ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reduction of chlorinous odor by the combination of oxidation and ion-exchange treatments

    To better control chlorinous odor in tap water, we assessed the performance of the combination of oxidation (ozonation or advanced oxidation processes, AOP) and ion-exchange treatment. In this process, the hydrophilic neutral fraction (a major dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction) is converted to ionic species, and these ions and ammonium ion are effectively removed during ion-exchange ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Behaviour of brominated and chlorinated flame retardants during drinking water treatment

    Flame retardants are chemicals that are added to plastic materials in order to prevent them from catching fire and to slow down the burning process. Due to the widespread occurrence of flame retardants in the environment, it can be expected that especially the more hydrophilic compounds already contaminate raw water resources of water utilities. In this paper results of laboratory-scale ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cost implications of hydrogen donor selection for in-situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents

    The use of enhanced anaerobic bioremediation for treatment of chlorinated solvents in groundwater has increased at a rapid rate within the past three years. Since there are a number of different hydrogen donors that can potentially be used, it is important that practitioners understand the cost implications of the hydrogen donor(s) selected for the project. A comparative economic analysis is ...


    By Terra Systems, Inc. (TSI)

  • Formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs) in blended water treated with chlorine

    This study was conducted in the laboratory to assess the formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs) in blended water under various treatment conditions. Three batches of water samples prepared by mixing desalinated (product) water and ground brackish water with three different proportions (i.e. 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 – brackish:product water) were treated with three concentration levels of calcium ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Case study - Floating covers reduce TSS, improve chlorine disinfection

    Problem: Algae and ultraviolet (UV) rays were adversely affecting chlorination in an upstate New York reservoir and Southern Florida WWTF. Algae was shielding embedded bacteria from chlorine, making the bacteriacide ineffective, thus requiring the chlorine dosage to be increased. Algae increased the chlorine demand along with exposure to UV which dissipates un-stabilized chlorine. Both ...

  • Evaluation of DBPs formation from SMPs exposed to chlorine, chloramine and ozone

    Soluble microbial products (SMPs) are an important group of components in wastewater effluents. In this study, the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), chlorinated solvents (CSs), haloketones (HKs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM) (chloropicrin), from SMPs during chlorination, chloramination and ...


    By IWA Publishing

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