chlorine level Articles

  • Chlorine levels in pools

    In response to a SportExcel CPD seminar in April 2004 on pool water disinfection ISRM is reissuing this updated guidance. Also, recent press reports have highlighted the theoretical risks of high chlorine levels in swimming pools in relation to both pregnant women and levels of childhood asthma. This further reinforces the need for operators to provide the highest pool water standards possible. ...

  • High Levels of Chlorinated Solvents Reduced to Non-Detect; Site Receives Closure

    CASE SUMMARY Manufacturing Facility, Europe The subject site has been used for the manufacture of industrial switchgear assemblies and warehousing since the 1970s. A subsurface investigation revealed a highly localized plume near WS10 with significant groundwater concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) at 260 parts per million (ppm) along with its breakdown product ...


    By REGENESIS

  • The synergistic effect of Escherichia coli inactivation by sequential disinfection with low level chlorine dioxide followed by free chlorine

    To the best of our knowledge, there was little information available on pathogen removal using low level disinfectant followed by free chlorine in sequential disinfection (SD). This study investigated Escherichia coli inactivation by four types of disinfection: single step disinfection (SSD), SD, traditional sequential disinfection (TSD) and mixed disinfectant disinfection (MDD). Results ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Standard Chlorine of Delaware Remediation

    By designing a 70-foot deep barrier wall, Black & Veatch was able to cut off contaminant source areas from a creek near New Castle, Delaware. The groundwater treatment system that Black & Veatch designed prevents site contamination from reaching the underlying drinking water aquifer. The Standard Chlorine of Delaware Site is a 65 acre area including an abandoned chlorobenzene ...


    By Black & Veatch Corporation

  • The Wonders of Ammonia & Chlorine

    The two most common chemicals found in your home, office and commercial facilities in one form or another are Ammonia (NH3) and Chlorine (Cl2). They are also two of the oldest and most widely produced chemicals in commercial use around the world. Ammonia, a refrigerant by “nature” Refrigeration by mechanical means goes back to the 1800s and ammonia was among the earliest chemicals to ...

  • Controoling chlorine costs

    The most widespread disinfectant used in the treatment of drinking water is chlorine, which can be applied in a variety of ways. History has taught us that, in bacteriological terms, chlorinating water is a proven way of disinfecting drinking water. After all, more than 75 years have passed since chlorine was used to disinfect drinking water for the first time. Many years of experience have shown ...


  • Chlorine mystery solved

    Following the installation of in-pipe drinking water quality monitoring sondes, distribution engineers discovered an occasional significant disparity between the Intellisondes’ data and results from grab samples tested by a photometer tablet (DPD) method. For most of the time, there was close agreement between the two methods, but periodically, the photometer results varied wildly, whilst ...


    By Intellitect Water Ltd

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...

  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Chlorine Safety and Prevention: How to Protect Yourself from Chlorine Leaks

    While chlorine gas is widely used in swimming pools, water treatment facilities, cleaning products, pharmaceutical products, and in many other industries, the gas is highly toxic when handled improperly. Training your workers on how to safely use chlorine is one part of health and safety best practices; monitoring your workplace for chlorine leaks is another. Learn about the hidden dangers in ...

  • Chlorinated solvents: methylene chloride and TCE

    Introduction This paper presents the results of a scaled and phased approach to source remediation of high concentrations of recalcitrant chlorinated solvent compounds via soil vapor extraction (SVE) and vapor treatment at a Site in Southern California. Phase I began with refrigerated condensation (C3) in order to achieve high mass removal rates to reduce lifecycle costs and time ...

  • Sequential chlorination for reclaimed water disinfection

    ABSTRACT The Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (Districts) operate seven tertiary water reclamation plants (WRPs) with a combined treatment capacity of approximately 200 million gallons per day (MGD). Chloramination is used at these WRPs for effluent disinfection. It was recently discovered that chloramination results in formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a compound with ...

  • Analysis of PCBs in emission samples: non ortho, mono-ortho and homolog totals by level of chlorination

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the most widespread persistent organic pollutants, identified in every component of the global ecosystem. A production of approximately 2 * 10 9 Kg technical PCB occurred form 1930 to the late 1970 1 and the total amount released into the environment is estimated in 370. 000 2 tonnes. Twelve of the possible 209 PCBs are non- and mono-ortho substituted ...


    By Monitoring Systems GmbH

  • The impact of chlorine disinfection on biochemical oxygen demand levels in chemically enhanced primary treatment effluent

    The response trends of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and organic strength after the chlorination/dechlorination process were explored through a 2-year, 5-month chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) effluent onsite monitoring program and a 2-month laboratory-scale study. The monitoring results showed that better instantaneous mixing at the chlorine injection point reduced the effect of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis of PCBs in emission samples: non ortho, mono-ortho and homolog totals by level of chlorination

    IntroductionPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the most widespread persistent organic pollutants, identified in every component of the global ecosystem. A production of approximately 2 * 10 9 Kg technical PCB occurred form 1930 to the late 1970 1 and the total amount released into the environment is estimated in 370. 000 2 tonnes. Twelve of the possible 209 PCBs are non- and mono-ortho ...


    By Monitoring Systems GmbH

  • Trihalomethane formation in ozonated and chlorinated surface water

    Abstract The relatively recent discovery of disinfection by-products has driven the main regulatory organisms to set maximum contaminant levels for certain substances in drinking water. Trihalomethanes can be deemed as the most important group of by-products in chlorinated surface waters. The present work has focused on trihalomethane formation in a full-scale water treatment plant. We studied ...


    By Springer

  • Passively Enhanced In-Situ Biodegradation of Chlorinated Solvents

    Harding Lawson Associates (HLA) conducted a field demonstration to evaluate in situ enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents using Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC). The technology is designed to enhance the natural biodegradation process for a more rapid and complete degradation of the organic contaminants to non-toxic compounds (e.g., ethylene). This paper presents the results ...


    By REGENESIS

  • DBPs in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool: occurrences and modeling

    Swimming pool water contains higher chlorine residual and is maintained at a higher temperature than tap water. It constitutes environments with high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water and air due to continuous disinfection and constant organic loading from the bathers. Exposure to DBPs is inevitable for any bather or trainer while such exposure can have cancer and non-cancer ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Grid and Barrier Treatment Reduces Chlorinated Solvent Contamination

    CASE SUMMARY Manufacturing Facility, Dallas, TX Subsurface investigations at this manufacturing facility revealed chlorinated solvent contamination in the groundwater. The contaminant plume contained significant levels of dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) from the natural attenuation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Well MW-9 contained ...


    By REGENESIS

  • 9 key parameters for the Chlorine and Soda production industry

    Large-scale production of chlorine involves several steps and many pieces of equipment. The plant also simultaneously produces sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)hydrogen gas. A typical plant consists of brine production/treatment, cell operations, chlorine cooling & drying, chlorine compression & liquefaction, liquid chlorine storage & loading, caustic handling, evaporation, storage ...


    By AquaGas Pty Ltd

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