chlorine measurement Articles

  • Chlorine Theory & Measurement

    Chlorine, dissolved in liquid is one of the most effective and economical semi-killers for the treatment of water to make it potable or safe to drink. Chlorine's powerful disinfectant qualities come from its ability to bond with and destroy the outer surfaces of bacteria and viruses. Drinking water chlorination is one of the most widely used methods to safeguard chinking water supplies. In ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Amperometric Free Chlorine Measurement without pH Compensation

    Accurate measurement and control of free chlorine in water is critical in many applications. Amperometric sensors are a popular alternative to colorimetric analyzers since the measurement is continuous and no reagents are required, however most sensors are extremely sensitive to pH fluctuations and have a limited pH range where they will function. Expensive pH measurement and control is one ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Chlorine mystery solved

    Following the installation of in-pipe drinking water quality monitoring sondes, distribution engineers discovered an occasional significant disparity between the Intellisondes’ data and results from grab samples tested by a photometer tablet (DPD) method. For most of the time, there was close agreement between the two methods, but periodically, the photometer results varied wildly, whilst ...


    By Intellitect Water Ltd

  • Controoling chlorine costs

    The most widespread disinfectant used in the treatment of drinking water is chlorine, which can be applied in a variety of ways. History has taught us that, in bacteriological terms, chlorinating water is a proven way of disinfecting drinking water. After all, more than 75 years have passed since chlorine was used to disinfect drinking water for the first time. Many years of experience have shown ...


  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Chlorination By-Products in Chlorinated Cooling Water of some European Coastal Power Stations

    Chlorination by-products (CBPs) are formed as a result of ti;: cnlorination of power station cooling waterfor anti-foulingpurposes. Their production was studiedat IO coastal power stations in the UK, France and The Netherlands. Three categories of CBPs were determined: trihalomethanes; haloacetonitriles; and halophenols. Bromoform was the CBP most abundantly present in the efluents of all 10 ...


    By Aquator B.V.

  • Landfill remediation with refrigerants and chlorinated solvents

    PROJECT DESCRIPTION Between 1979 and 1980, industrial and hazardous wastes were disposed of at the Site in a series of unlined pits, each of which was used for a particular type of waste disposal. It is reported based on evaluations of manifests that approximately 3.4 million gallons of hazardous liquid wastes and between 3,700 and 4,100 tons of solid wastes were disposed of in the pits ...

  • Chlorinated solvents: methylene chloride and TCE

    Introduction This paper presents the results of a scaled and phased approach to source remediation of high concentrations of recalcitrant chlorinated solvent compounds via soil vapor extraction (SVE) and vapor treatment at a Site in Southern California. Phase I began with refrigerated condensation (C3) in order to achieve high mass removal rates to reduce lifecycle costs and time ...

  • Chlorination By-Products in Chlorinated Cooling Water of some European Coastal Power Stations

    Chlorination by-products (CBPs) are formed as a result of the chlorination of power station cooling water for anti-fouling purposes. Their production was studied at 10 coastal power stations in the UK, France and The Netherlands. Three categories of CBPs were determined: trihalomethanes; haloacetonitriles; and halophenols. Bromoform was the CBP most abundantly present in the efluents of all 10 ...


    By Sweco Nederland BV

  • Comparison of commercial analytical techniques for measuring chlorine dioxide in urban desalinated drinking water

    Most drinking water industries are closely examining options to maintain a certain level of disinfectant residual through the entire distribution system. Chlorine dioxide is one of the promising disinfectants that is usually used as a secondary disinfectant, whereas the selection of the proper monitoring analytical technique to ensure disinfection and regulatory compliance has been debated ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • DBPs in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool: occurrences and modeling

    Swimming pool water contains higher chlorine residual and is maintained at a higher temperature than tap water. It constitutes environments with high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water and air due to continuous disinfection and constant organic loading from the bathers. Exposure to DBPs is inevitable for any bather or trainer while such exposure can have cancer and non-cancer ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • 9 key parameters for the Chlorine and Soda production industry

    Large-scale production of chlorine involves several steps and many pieces of equipment. The plant also simultaneously produces sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)hydrogen gas. A typical plant consists of brine production/treatment, cell operations, chlorine cooling & drying, chlorine compression & liquefaction, liquid chlorine storage & loading, caustic handling, evaporation, storage ...


    By AquaGas Pty Ltd

  • Passively Enhanced In-Situ Biodegradation of Chlorinated Solvents

    Harding Lawson Associates (HLA) conducted a field demonstration to evaluate in situ enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents using Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC). The technology is designed to enhance the natural biodegradation process for a more rapid and complete degradation of the organic contaminants to non-toxic compounds (e.g., ethylene). This paper presents the results ...


    By REGENESIS

  • Chlorine Dioxide gas detection: A comprehensive guide

    Introduction Some years agoago, the bleaching process in the paper industry was changed from using Chlorine (Cl2) as bleaching agent to Chlorine dioxide (ClO2). This was a challenge forThis posed a major challenge to industrial hygienists, as there were no sensors or detectors available that were specific to Chlorine dioxide: There was no sensor technology for gas detectors available that ...

  • High range chlorine testing – what are the options?

    Higher range chlorine solutions are typically used for disinfecting products but standard chlorine meters often cannot measure to higher ranges. For example the Hach Pocket Colorimeter II for chlorine measures to a maximum of 2mg/L, and the ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • What’s the difference between free and total chlorine?

    The element Chlorine exists as a gas Cl2, when this is mixed with water it forms hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which is the disinfecting agent; Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCl This HOCl can partly disassociate to form the hypochlorite ion ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Effect of advanced water treatment on behaviour of residual chlorine and development of chlorine control method in distribution systems

    The behaviour of residual chlorine concentration in drinking water treated by the mid-chlorination or the advanced water treatment (AWT) was investigated. The AWT removes dissolved organic matter more than the mid-chlorination, thus the rate of residual chlorine reduction is decreased. The analysis of chlorine concentration data measured by automated continuous monitoring devices revealed that ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Wastewater Level Measurement Techniques

    Level monitoring and control is a fundamental requirement in any wastewater treatment process. You will find level instrumentation installed at even the simplest treatment plants for pump control, chemical storage tanks and process level controls or alarms. Operators have only limited or emergency control over treatment plant influent, so level controls and instrumentation play an important role ...


    By Greyline Instruments Inc.

  • Performance-Based Measurement Systems

    Many of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) methods used to monitor air, water and soil for environmental contaminants prescribe step-by-step details on how the chemical analysis must be conducted and prohibit any deviations or variations. The EPA has recognized that monitoring equipment and technology have improved tremendously over the last few years; that environmental media do not ...


    By WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

  • Application of chlorine resistant polyamide RO membrane for household water filtration device

    Chlorine attacks the polyamide RO membrane to cause membrane failure as measured by enhanced passage of both salt and water. For this reason, activated carbon pre-filters that remove chlorine are typically placed ahead of RO membranes in home drinking water treatment RO system. A general home drinking water treatment system employing RO is composed of preliminary sediment filter, activated carbon ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

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