chlorofluorocarbon Articles

  • Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) remediation case study 2002

    Project Description The project site is located in Northern California and was leased and operated as a chemical storage and solvent recovery operation from late 1972 through April 1993. During an earlier period, the site may also have been used as a waste transfer station. Previous investigations indicate that soil and groundwater at the site, and groundwater down-gradient (westward) from ...

  • The environment: the road ahead

    Based on a paper given at the Environment North Seas Conference in Stavanger, August 1991, this paper examines the future for the environment. It begins by examining progress to date, e.g. control of chlorofluorocarbons, Sustainable Development is identified as the basis for the future, and must be turned from theory to practice. Through a mix of regulation and market led factors, industry will ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Nor Cal 2002 Case Study (C3 Technology)

    The project site is located in Northern California and was leased and operated as a chemical storage and solvent recovery operation from late 1972 through April 1993. During an earlier period, the site may also have been used as a waste transfer station. Previous investigations indicate that soil and groundwater at the site, and groundwater down-gradient (westward) from the site, have been ...


    By GEO Inc

  • Entropy added taxing methodology: a case study with domestic refrigerators in India

    Use of thermal engineering appliances, especially refrigerators and air conditioners has increased enormously in both industrial and in domestic sectors. They cause considerable environmental pollution due to the release of a large quantity of refrigerant (chlorofluorocarbons) and the use of a large quantity of power, generated mainly from low quality domestic coal. Also available energy or ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • South LA: CFC Case Study (C3 Technology)

    The Site location was an industrial facility located in the greater South Los Angeles region that manufactured chemicals for local petrochemical and other industrial operations from 1919 through late 1990’s. Refrigerants were initially produced in 1964 including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) such as trichlorofluoromethane (R-11), dichlorodifluoromethane ...


    By GEO Inc

  • Accumulated CFC-11 in polyurethane foam insulation: an estimate of the total amount in district heating installations in Sweden

    In rigid polyurethane foam used for thermal insulation, CFC-11 has been the main blowing agent for many years, but is now subject to phase-out regulations. During ageing of this foam, air diffuses into it and blowing agents leak into the atmosphere, resulting in a decreased insulating capacity. Determinations of the cell gas composition and the total content of CFC-11 in foam from district ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Technical implications of the 1987 Montreal Protocol for developing countries

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol, which came into force in 1989 and was subsequently strengthened by the 1990 and 1992 amendments, has profound implications for both developed and developing countries. The implications for developed countries have understandably received and continue to receive considerable attention. However, the implications for technology, industry, training and development, and the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • R 22 refrigerant gas is on the way out and nearing end of phase out period

    R 22 refrigerant gas, widely used in numerous industrial applications, is being phased out. As the government mandated phase out continues, those facilities that have equipment using this chemical are rushing to impose measures that enable them to meet the requirements of the law. Numerous substances are suspected of causing great harm to our climate, the depletion of the ozone layer and ...


    By Verisae

  • Interpreting the seasonal and long-term trend of nitrate in both groundwater and spring water in a typical headwater wetland with well-defined groundwater flow pathways

    Timescale problems of nitrate behavior (i.e. seasonal variation and long-term trend) in headwater are closely related to its hydrological process. In a typical agricultural headwater catchment in the Chiba prefecture, Japan, the groundwater nitrate concentration showed an increasing trend, while for spring water, a substantial decreasing trend was observed during our monitoring period. Two key ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Summarizing the fundamentals of fugitive emission tracking

    Fugitive emission tracking for a number of key industries is now a focus for the United States and a number of other countries. When a hazardous leak occurs it is important to identify and gauge the amount and type of substance emitted. Officials will gain a better understanding of the challenge posed by greenhouse gases, as they affect global warming. When an unexpected leak of a hazardous ...


    By Verisae

  • Manmade chemicals a major cause of global climate change

    Although the Earth?s climate evolves naturally over time, the major cause of climate change that is harmful and lead to unfavorable weather, water patterns, growth patterns are due to the release of manmade chemicals. While these chemicals are necessary to produce certain items, operate essential refrigeration equipment, or make our daily lives easier, they are a danger to the environment and the ...


    By Verisae

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2013

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Background The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer entered into force in 1989 and aims to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out more than 200 substances, ...

  • Chloroflourocarbon (CFC) remediation case study

    Project Description The Site location was an industrial facility located in the greater South Los Angeles region that manufactured chemicals for local petrochemical and other industrial operations from 1919 through late 1990’s. Refrigerants were initially produced in 1964 including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) such as trichlorofluoromethane (R-11), ...

  • Ozone depleting substances (ODS) and The Montreal Protocol

    The Montreal Protocol, officially called the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, is an international treaty created to reduce the damage being caused to the stratospheric ozone layer by air pollutants such as refrigerant gases. The ozone layer protects the earth from damaging UV-B radiation, which could lead to increased cases of skin cancer, damaged crops and marine ...


    By Verisae

  • Scientists call manmade chemicals like refrigerant gases a cause of climate change

    A major cause of climate change is the harm that is done to the Earth by man-made chemicals. Whilst chemicals, such as those used to produce day by day items, operate equipment and generally make life easier, are necessary, they present a threat to the environment. Governments around the world have set new regulations to limit the use of substances that contribute to global warming and deplete ...


    By Verisae

  • Emission scopes help to categorize greenhouse gas (GHGs) reporting efforts

    Emission scopes are being used to determine the category of chemical and usage area, so that facilities can understand and monitor their greenhouse gas impact. The US Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocol have established that emissions of harmful substances must be controlled worldwide. When discharged into the air, these chemicals can cause severe damage to the global environment. Three ...


    By Verisae

  • Refrigerant Gas Tracking: The importance of AC/HVAC system maintenance

    Refrigerant gases are used in commercial facilities such as office buildings, hospitals and warehouses to maintain the climate and air quality. Refrigerant management includes maintaining the air conditioning (AC) or heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) units often used to maintain the environment in these buildings.Refrigerant gases have been around for many years. These gases are ...


    By Verisae

  • How to decifer government laws for refrigerant gases (R-22 HCFCs)

    Refrigerant Gas Regulations for R-22 HCFCs: How the Government Mandates Monitoring and TrackingThe U.S. Clean Air Act is a regulation that spells out the EPA's role in air quality, especially in protecting the ozone layer and the tracking and reporting of Greenhouse Gases. The Act is maintained by the House of Representatives. The Clean Air Act has had changes made in the 1990s and again in 2008 ...


    By Verisae

  • Refrigerant leak detection is regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    Refrigerant leak detection is a difficult task in some heating ventilation and air conditioning systems or refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Sometimes the most experienced technicians find difficulty discovering a leak, which may be hidden in a system component, in tubing or in an operating or safety control switch. Refrigerant leak detection is a hot topic, following the recently ...


    By Verisae

  • Comparative Effects of HRC Application at Four Project Locations (PDF)

    Four site locations in the Southern or Midwest United States were the venues for pilot testing of a commercially available injectable bioremediation product (HRC™) to enhance the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents. This activity occurred from 1997 through the end of 2000. Prior to injection, each site exhibited bioattenuation of parent compounds such as PCE, TCE, carbon ...


    By REGENESIS

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