coagulation Articles

  • Coagulation, flocculation and agglomeration

    Agglomeration Agglomeration refers to the formation of more or less firmly bound primary particles by collision processes between primary particles, primary particles and agglomerates, as well as pre-existing agglomerates. The agglomeration consists of a destabilization and a transport process. The destabilization is divided into coagulation and flocculation. In general, both ...

  • What Is Zero Liquid Discharge and How Does It Work?

    Not every industrial facility that produces wastewater will require zero liquid discharge (ZLD). It is usually looked to as a last resort because it can be a complex process that requires a high initial investment. If a facility is located on a site that has severe water scarcity issues and/or astronomical discharge fees, it might be ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Decolorization of dyeing wastewater and characterization of flocs during coagulation by a new composite coagulant

    A composite coagulant, polymeric aluminum ferric chloride-poly-epichlorohydrin-ethylenediamine (PAFC-EPI-ETA), was synthesized and then used for the treatment of synthetic reactive brilliant red (RBR) dyeing wastewater. Effects of (Fe + Al) to EPI-ETA mass ratio (P) on the color removal and zeta potential were investigated under different coagulant dosages and initial pHs. Experimental ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Study on the removal of acid dyes using chitosan as a natural coagulant/coagulant aid

    Chitosan was selected as a natural coagulating agent for the removal of acid dyes (Acid Blue 292; AB292, and Acid Red 398; AR398) from dye-containing solutions. The study was organised in two phases. In phase 1, chitosan was used alone as a natural coagulant for the removal of the dyes. For this purpose, the effect of different parameters including pH, chitosan dosage and initial dye ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater treatment

    Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment.  This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking.  Material for this article was largely taken from reference (1). Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. In potable water treatment, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of industrial dyeing wastewater treatment with coagulants and polyelectrolyte as a coagulant aid.

    Wastewater is the major environmental issue of the textile industries besides other minor issues like solid waste, resource wastage and occupational, health and safety. Textile and dyeing mills use many kinds of artificial composite dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater. Pretreatment, coloration and after treatment of fibers, usually require large amounts of water and ...


    By University of Tehran

  • Effectiveness of coagulants and coagulant aids for the removal of filter-clogging Synedra

    ABSTRACTThe occurrence of Synedra spp. in the source water of the CheongJu water treatment plant (South Korea) decreased filter run times of rapid sand filters to below 5 hours. During the filter-clogging episode, full-scale Synedra removal by coagulation  with polyaluminium hydrogen chloride silicate (PAHCS), flocculation and sedimentation ranged from 20 to 70%. To reduce filter clogging, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effectiveness of coagulants and coagulant aids for the removal of filter-clogging Synedra

    The occurrence of Synedra spp. in the source water of the CheongJu water treatment plant (South Korea) decreased filter run times of rapid sand filters to below 5 hours. During the filter-clogging episode, full-scale Synedra removal by coagulation with polyaluminium hydrogen chloride silicate (PAHCS), flocculation and sedimentation ranged from 20 to 70%. To reduce filter clogging, strategies ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Coagulant mixing revisited: theory and practice

    Are rapid-mixing tanks with intense mixing necessary? Intense mixing applies to the coagulation mechanism of charge-neutralization of negatively-charged particles, but this is not a common coagulation method. More common is precipitation of aluminum or iron for coagulation of particles and natural organic matter, which is often called sweep-floc coagulation. Coagulation by precipitation is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Enhanced Coagulation Using a Magnetic Ion Exchange Resin

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the effectiveness of a magnetic ion exchange resin (IVIIEXR) provided by ORICA Australia Pty Ltd. of Victoria, Australia to enhance the coagulation of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors. The IVIIE)C resin purportedly adsorbs natural organic material, thereby lowering the coagulant demand of the water, as well as lowering its DBP formation ...


    By IXOM Watercare

  • Treatment of paint wastewater by radiation combined with coagulation and adsorption

    In this study, attempts were made to examine the efficiency of radiation combined with coagulation with aluminium sulphate and adsorption using granular activated carbon (GAC) for treatment of paint wastewater and its reuse for different purpose. Parameters affecting microorganism disinfection such as radiation dose showed that complete disinfection was obtained at radiation dose 2 kGy. Factors ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Coagulation behaviour of polyaluminium chloride with different aluminium speciation

    The coagulation behaviour of polyaluminium chloride (PACl) with different contents of aluminium species (Alm, Al13, Alu detected by 27Al NMR spectroscopy) was investigated by using the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Pretreatment of Municipal Wastewater by Enhanced Chemical Coagulation

    The efficiency of existing municipal wastewater treatment plants has been affected by the increase of incoming organic load caused by the expansions in developing countries. In the present investigation, the effect of Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) process was studied on the enhancement efficiency of a municipal wastewater treatment plant in ...


    By University of Tehran

  • Factors affecting coagulation as a pretreatment to ultrafiltration membranes

    Low pressure membranes can be effective in treating various types of water, but are subject to fouling. In this work, chemical coagulation was studied as a pretreatment to ultrafiltration (UF), with the goal of mitigating fouling while maintaining high permeate water quality. Alum and ferric chloride were evaluated, as well as two polyaluminum chloride (PACl) products of different basicities ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of recycled sludge to stabilize coagulation process

    In conventional treatment of variable quality mountain water, an inability to immediately adjust the coagulant dose to variations in water quality causes overdose or underdose of coagulant in relation to its optimal value. The results of the research showed that the reuse of post-coagulation sludge was an effective method to maintain high and stable coagulation effectiveness under both ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Control of disinfection by products formation potential by enhanced coagulation

    Abstract Jar-test experiments were conducted to study enhanced coagulation effectiveness in removal of disinfection by products (DBPs) from Zayandehrud River at Isfahan Province-the center part of Iran- in 2004. In this study, the removal of suspended and colloidal particles and natural organic matter (NOM) at various coagulant doses and coagulation pHs was assessed through raw and treated ...

  • Preparation and Performance of Inorganic Coagulant for Landfill Leachate Pretreatment

    Landfill leachates are often defined as hazardous and heavy polluted wastewaters. It may contain large amount of organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, heavy metals, chlorinated organics and inorganic salts (Wang et al. 2002). Proper treatment of leachate has therefore been a challenging problem confroting the local authorities. Anaerobic digestion or/and aerobic activated sludge methods are the most ...


    By Springer

  • Longterm experience in the use of polymeric coagulants at Umgeni Water

    Umgeni Water, the bulk treatment authority for the cities of Durban and Pietermaritzburg changed from inorganic coagulants to synthetic polymeric coagulants at its various works in the mid 1980s. The advantages and disadvantages experienced with the new chemicals are discussed in detail in the paper and the changes to test procedures necessary are highlighted. The polymeric coagulants were found ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of chitosan as a natural coagulant for drinking water treatment

    Chitosan, a natural biopolymer, was evaluated for its ability to be used as a coagulant to treat water for potable use both in isolation and in combination with other water treatment technologies, specifically ion-exchange and activated carbon. Chitosan was found to be very effective for particle removal at doses far below those required for equivalent turbidity removal by inorganic coagulants. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Home water treatment by direct filtration with natural coagulant

    ABSTRACTSeeds of the plant species Strychnos potatorum and Moringa oleifera contain natural polyelectrolytes which can be used as coagulants to clarify turbid waters. In laboratory tests, direct filtration of a turbid surface water (turbidity 15-25 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 280-500 cfu ml−1, and fecal coliforms 280-500 MPN 100 ml−1), with seeds of S. potatorum ...


    By IWA Publishing

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