coagulation chemical Articles

  • 3 Water Utilities that Lowered their Arsenic Levels with AdEdge

    Finding an appropriate solution to address arsenic in raw water can be challenging for utilities. Studies have shown that when ingested in high concentrations, it is linked to cancer in the skin, lungs, bladder and kidney, and can cause significant skin changes, such as thickening and pigmentation, as well as other health issues. For this reason, the ...

  • Surface Water Monitoring - Case Study

    Safe operation of a Water Treatment Plant (WTP) requires careful monitoring of the water supply influent to the plant, as a guard for any substances entering the treatment works that could negatively impact treated water quality in the distribution system. One aspect of water quality that has recently garnered more attention from authorities and utilities is Natural Organic Matter (NOM), which ...


    By MANTECH Inc.

  • Pretreatment of Municipal Wastewater by Enhanced Chemical Coagulation

    The efficiency of existing municipal wastewater treatment plants has been affected by the increase of incoming organic load caused by the expansions in developing countries. In the present investigation, the effect of Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) process was studied on the enhancement efficiency of a municipal wastewater treatment plant in ...


    By University of Tehran

  • Preparation, characterization and coagulation behaviour of polyferric magnesium silicate (PFMSi) coagulant

    A composite coagulant polyferric magnesium silicate (PFMSi) was synthesized by co-polymerization. The structure and morphology of PFMSi were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and scanning electron microscope microphotographs; meanwhile, the coagulation efficiency was evaluated under different ratios of Fe/Si, Mg/Si, basicity ([OH]/[M] ratio), and dosage. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Physical and chemical impacts of conventional unit processes and coagulants on the dinoflagellate, Ceratium hirundinella

    The freshwater dinoflagellate, Ceratium hirundinella (C. hirundinella) with its complex morphology and robust thecal plate cell covering, is responsible for extensive problems during drinking water production. To have a better understanding of these problems, knowledge of what happens to the integrity of the cells after each step of the conventional water treatment process is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reduction dye in paint and construction chemicals wastewater by improved coagulation–flocculation process

    A coagulation–flocculation process was applied to wastewater of paint and construction chemicals producing factory in Turkey. Ferric chloride was used as coagulant and several natural based materials, namely limestone, pumice, sepiolite, bentonite and mussel shell were used as flocculant aids. The effects of dosage of flocculant aids on the pH, color and electrical conductivity of wastewater ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chemical feed control using coagulation computer models and a streaming current detector

    This paper describes the use of both the streaming current detector (SCD) and coagulation computer models to provide real-time data for required coagulant feed rates. The method for computer modeling of coagulation and other water treatment processes/operations was originally developed for Lake Michigan Filtration Plant in Grand Rapids, Michigan (MI). Since the initial implementation, a number ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of industrial dyeing wastewater treatment with coagulants and polyelectrolyte as a coagulant aid.

    Wastewater is the major environmental issue of the textile industries besides other minor issues like solid waste, resource wastage and occupational, health and safety. Textile and dyeing mills use many kinds of artificial composite dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater. Pretreatment, coloration and after treatment of fibers, usually require large amounts of water and ...


    By University of Tehran

  • The effectiveness of humic acids coagulation with the use of cationic polyacrylamides

    The chemical coagulation process is a popular method for eliminating the precursors of disinfection by-products. This study presents the results of a laboratory experiment which investigates the use of cationic polyacrylamide copolymers (CPAMs) as primary coagulants in the purification of solutions containing humic acids (HA). A number of polymers with various molecular weight and charge density ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application performance of a new coagulant in wastewater reuse

    Ultraviolet (UV) absorption characteristics of poly-Al-Zn-Fe (PAZF), a polymerized coagulant containing three kinds of metallic elements prepared from a galvanized-aluminum slag, was analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry during its polymerization process. Pollutant removal by PAZF in treating various wastewaters was investigated, in comparison with that of polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Longterm experience in the use of polymeric coagulants at Umgeni Water

    Umgeni Water, the bulk treatment authority for the cities of Durban and Pietermaritzburg changed from inorganic coagulants to synthetic polymeric coagulants at its various works in the mid 1980s. The advantages and disadvantages experienced with the new chemicals are discussed in detail in the paper and the changes to test procedures necessary are highlighted. The polymeric coagulants were found ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Factors affecting coagulation as a pretreatment to ultrafiltration membranes

    Low pressure membranes can be effective in treating various types of water, but are subject to fouling. In this work, chemical coagulation was studied as a pretreatment to ultrafiltration (UF), with the goal of mitigating fouling while maintaining high permeate water quality. Alum and ferric chloride were evaluated, as well as two polyaluminum chloride (PACl) products of different basicities ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The application of artificial neural networks for the optimization of coagulant dosage

    Filtration is the final physical barrier preventing the passage of microbial pathogens into public drinking water. Proper pre-treatment via coagulation is essential for maintaining good particle removal during filtration. To improve filter performance at the Elgin Area WTP, artificial neural network (ANN) models were applied to optimize pre-filtration processes in terms of settled water turbidity ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessment of coagulation pretreatment of leachate by response surface methodology

    Coagulation-flocculation is a relatively simple technique that can be used successfully for the treatment of old leachate by poly-aluminum chloride (PAC). The main objectives of this study are to design the experiments, build models and optimize the operating parameters, dosage m and pH, using the central composite design and response surface method. Developed for chemical organic matter (COD) ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Characterization and predicting DOM treatability by enhanced coagulation

    The dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays significant role in water safety due to not only the natural occurrence but also man-induced pollution. To characterize and predict DOM treatability becomes therefore a very important and hot topic. In this paper, enhanced coagulation by four typical coagulants (FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and high ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Oxidation and coagulation of humic substances by potassium ferrate

    Ferrate (FeO42−) is believed to have a dual role in water treatment, both as oxidant and coagulant. Few studies have considered the coagulation effect in detail, mainly because of the difficulty of separating the oxidation and coagulation effects. This paper summarises some preliminary results from laboratory-based experiments that are investigating the coagulation reaction dynamically via a PDA ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The effectiveness of humic acid coagulation with the use of cationic polyacrylamides

    The chemical coagulation process is a popular method for eliminating the precursors of disinfection by-products. This study presents the results of a laboratory experiment which investigates the use of cationic polyacrylamide copolymers (CPAMs) as primary coagulants in the purification of solutions containing humic acids (HA). A number of polymers with various molecular weight and charge density ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Preparation of composite coagulant of PFM-PDMDAAC and its coagulation performance in treatment of landfill leachate

    A novel inorganic–organic composite coagulant, poly-ferric-magnesium (PFM) polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDMDAAC), was prepared using FeSO4, MgSO4 and PDMDAAC as raw materials and was introduced to treat landfill leachate. The coagulation performance of the new reagent was evaluated and compared with those of other coagulants. The new reagent was characterized in terms of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Treatment of actual metalworking wastewaters by coagulation combined with electrochemical oxidation

    The technical and economical viability of physico-chemical treatment followed by electrochemical oxidation of two actual wastes produced in a metalworking industry has been studied. The physico-chemical process was found to be able to achieve the breakdown of the emulsions in the treatment of both effluents, although it requires a complementary treatment to deal with the soluble organic matter. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Pretreatment of concentrated leachate by the combination of coagulation and catalytic ozonation with Ce/AC catalyst

    A raw concentrated leachate produced from membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration (MBR-NF) was taken from Chengdu Chang'an Waste Landfill Site, China. The major fraction of this concentrated leachate was large refractory humic substances. A coagulation–ozonation process was applied to treat this leachate, aiming at enhancing chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and increasing its ...


    By IWA Publishing

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