conductivity electrode Articles

  • Measure pH, conductivity, oxygen with HQD

    After just a short time, the HQD digital electrochemical measuring system has already established itself in practice. Both in the laboratory, with standard electrodes, and in the field, with rugged outdoor electrodes.  On the following pages, users describe their experience with the HQD system. Their experiences show that the system covers a wide range of applications, including direct ...


  • Estimating soil conductivity for GPR surveys

    The results of a ground penetrating radar survey depends on many factors. In order to get useful data and good penetration, one of the conditions is that the conductivity of the ground is not too high. The conductivity of the material together with the operating frequency and the dielectric constant allow us to calculate the loss factor that is used to roughly estimate the theoretical ...


    By Geoscanners AB

  • Development of Pd-coated ceramic electrodes in hybrid sulphur cycle

    The Hybrid Sulphur (HyS) cycle has attracted much attention as a mass production process for hydrogen. It consists of an electrolysis step and a thermal decomposition one. In order to achieve high efficiency for hydrogen production and operational cost reduction, some developments in electrode materials with high corrosion resistance, high electrical conductivity and low anodic potential is a key ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Pure water pH measurement in low conductivity samples

    Normally, pH measurements are made in water with 1,000 to 10,000 uS/cm conductivity. The conductivity conies from dissolved solids, typically, salts plus net acid or base which explains the exhibited pH. These dissolved substances are in the solution in ion form, which makes such solutions conducting. With 1,000 uS/cm conductivity of mobile ions pH electrodes have a good circuit and give fast, ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Electrical conduction of calf-thymus DNA molecules

    We present theoretical calculations to explain the behaviour of electrical conduction in calf-thymus DNA molecules trapped between a gap of 10 nm Au electrodes. Our work further explains the experimental I-V data reported for these DNA molecules that shows both large electrical hysteresis and voltage gap. We attribute their data to energy conservation within the molecules and electrons transfer ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Photoelectrocatalytic study and scaling up of titanium dioxide electrodes for wastewater treatment

    Different TiO2 photoelectrodes have been characterized and tested for the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of methanol. Particulate electrodes (TiO2/Ti and TiO2/ITO) have been shown to notably favour charge-carrier transfer at the electrolyte interface while a thermal electrode (Ti) has been shown to favour charge-carrier separation when applying an electric potential bias ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Improving the capacitive deionisation performance by optimising pore structures of the electrodes

    In this paper, three types of ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) were synthesised by an original template method and a modified sol-gel process involving nickel salts. The effects of pore arrangement pattern (ordered and random), and pore size distribution (mesoporous and microporous) on the desalination performance were investigated by comparing mesoporous carbons with activated carbons (ACs). It ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Investigations on different positions of electrodes and their effects on the distribution of Cr at the water sediment interface

    Abstract: In most mining areas, significant concentrations of metals such as Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Hg, Ar, halogenated organic compounds and radionuclides are found. Of those, Cr is one of the well-known heavy metals that forms toxic species. It is necessary to study the mobilisation and accumulation of Cr at the sediment water interface in an electric field at varying different ...

  • Combination of a novel electrode material and artificial mediators to enhance power generation in an MFC

    This study focuses on two main aspects: developing a novel cost-effective electrode material and power production from domestic wastewater using three different mediators. Methylene blue (MB), neutral red (NR) and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ) were selected as electrode mediators with different concentrations. A tin-coated copper mesh electrode was tested as anode electrode. Maximum power ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Variation of algal viability during electrochemical disinfection using Ti/RuO2 electrodes

    This paper studied the influence of the operating conditions, e.g. current density, electrolyte and exposure time, on the variation of the algal viability during electrochemical disinfection processes. An electrochemical tube employing Ti/RuO2 as anodes was constructed for inactivation of cyanobacteria (often called blue-green algae) Microcystis aeruginosa. Viability of algal cells was determined ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Transparent conducting oxides superstrate for thin film solar cells: an industrial prospective

    The demand for a TCO coated glass substrate as a base material and front electrode of the solar cells is expected to grow very strongly in the next few years. Therefore it is crucial to prepare the industrial tools and proper glass compositions to meet this very impressive demand. Mass production of extra clear glass and atmospheric pressure thermal CVD tool installed directly on the float glass ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • PEDOT–PSS/MWCNT coatings on PET for conducting polymer actuators

    The electrochemical deposition of a conducting polymer on a non–conductive polymer requires a conductive layer, which can be achieved by sputtering or vaporisation of precious metals such as gold or platinum. In this investigation we coated poly(styrenesulphonate) doped poly(3,4–ethylenedioxythiophene)/multi–walled carbon nanotubes (PEDOT–PSS/MWCNT), in a ratio of 2.4 : 1 on a poly(ethylene ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Conductivity Measurement in high purity water samples below 10 microsiems/cm

    High Purity Water Resistivity/ Conductivity Measurement Ultra-Pure Water without any chemical impurities will still have a conductivity because of the presence of H* and OH" ions due to the self-ionization of water. Ultra-pure water has a conductivity of 0.055 HSiemens'cm or a resistivity of 18.18 mQ-cm at 25 °C. In order to know the conductivity or resistivity of ultra-pure water it is ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Arsenic removal from groundwater using low-cost carbon composite electrodes for capacitive deionization

    Affordable carbon composite electrodes were developed to treat low-concentrated groundwater using capacitive deionization (CDI). A carbon slurry prepared using activated carbon powder (ACP), poly(vinylidene fluoride), and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was employed as a casting solution to soak in a low-cost porous substrate. The surface morphology of the carbon composite electrodes was investigated ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Indianapolis, Indiana - CVOC remediation adjacent to occupied building with sheet pile electrodes - Case Study

    Standard Fixed Price Remediation of TCE and VC in soil and groundwater Project Summary TRS Group, Inc. (TRS) provided a Standard Fixed Price Remediation (SFPR) of trichioroethene (TCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) in soil and groundwater using Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) for AECOM at a confidential site located in Indianapolis, Indiana, Unique aspects of ...


    By TRS Group, Inc.

  • Instrumentation and Operational Considerations for On-Line pH Measurement in Samples Below 10µS/cm Conductivity

    Ordinarily pH measurements are made in water with 1,000 to 10,000 µS/cm conductivity. The conductivity comes from dissolved solids which are typically salts but also acid or base. These dissolved substances are in the solution in ion form which makes such solutions conducting. With conductivities of 1,000 µS/ cm or more, an ample supply of mobile ions provides pH electrodes with a ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesised from different catalysts: morphology, dielectrophoresis and conductance

    We give a brief overview of research to date on carbon nanotubes in New Zealand. We then present an investigation of the relationship between morphology and conductance and other properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesised under identical conditions using different catalyst precursors, namely ferrocene and iron (II) phthalocyanine. Large differences were observed in the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Microelectrode arrays for electroactive species detection in high resistive media

    Actual electrochemical sensors should be reliable and as versatile as possible. They should be able to make measurements in various media and in drastic conditions. From this point of view, microelectrode based sensors already developed since many years at CSEM provide unique solutions to many applications in electrochemical analysis that cannot be achieved with conventional electrodes ...


  • A Low-Cost Electrolytic Tiltmeter for Measuring Slope Deformation

    The tiltmeter described consists of an electrolytic sensor (a glass jar containing an electrolyte and six electrodes) and a portable AC digital conductivity meter, which reads conductivity changes resulting from tilting deflections. The tiltmeter has a sensitivity of 2 to 8 min of arc/cmu (conductivity meter unit), with a measurement range of more than 45°. This tiltmeter measured earth flow ...


    By ASTM International

  • Get the scoop on the newest technology for the measurement of pH

    SENTRON had its 20th birthday in April 2005 and is world wide known as the manufacturer of glass free ISFET (Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor) pH systems. During the 20 years we developed and manufactured not only ISFET pH sensors but also pressure sensors in our own silicon chip production facility. This facility for development and manufacturing of solid-state sensors, enables us to ...


    By Sentron Europe BV

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