conductivity testing Articles

  • Micro Pulse LiDAR: A Critical Tool for Emissions Source Detection

    Micro Pulse LiDAR remote sensing data are used to calculate a highly accurate Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height to improve plume models that help assess emissions sources. ...

  • Test & treat - treating hydrostatic test water

    A pipeline company in Iowa conducted a hydrostatic test of its pipeline, producing 39,000 barrels of fluid for treatment. The hydrostatic test water was to be discharged in accordance with a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. The permit required that discharge of the treated test water could not exceed a period of 14 days from the date the test was conducted. Fluid ...


    By CETCO Energy Services

  • Analysis of Hydraulic Gradient Effects for Laboratory Hydraulic Conductivity Testing

    A theoretical model is presented that characterizes the effect of hydraulic gradient on measured hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory. A closed-form equation is derived for the distribution of total head within a hydraulic conductivity test specimen as a function of specimen height, boundary stress conditions, compression index, and change of hydraulic conductivity index. From this ...


    By ASTM International

  • Assessing Frost Damage in Compacted Clay Liners

    Methods used to assess frost damage (here defined as a large increase in hydraulic conductivity) in compacted clay liners are reviewed and evaluated using data collected from two test pads that were instrumented and then exposed to winter weather. The methods include comparisons of measurements of either water content and dry unit weight or hydraulic conductivity made before and after winter ...


    By ASTM International

  • Materials Testing

    Dynaflow, Inc. is pleased to announce its specialized materials testing capabilities for material erosion due to cavitation and liquid impact, and for properties of materials undergoing rapid loading. Dynaflow, Inc. conducts standard (ASTM G-32, G-73, G-134) and customized erosion tests for cavitation and liquid impact erosion using ultrasonic, water jet, and whirling disk devices. This includes ...


    By Dynaflow, Inc.

  • Field Hydraulic Conductivity Tests for Compacted Soil Liners

    Field hydraulic conductivity tests are required to determine the in situ hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay soils used in the liners for hazardous waste management facilities. The test must be capable of measuring hydraulic conductivities of 1 × 10-9 m/s or less, and the values obtained must be representative of the overall soil liner. Few of the methods available are capable of both ...


    By ASTM International

  • Effect of Clod Size on Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clay

    A study has been conducted to identify the causes for field-measured values of hydraulic conductivity of clay liners being typically two orders of magnitude greater than laboratory-measured values. It has been found through laboratory testing on large specimens that the size and gradation of clods and clumps of clay, prior to compaction, can significantly affect the measured hydraulic ...


    By ASTM International

  • Parameter Sensitivity of Hydraulic Conductivity Testing Procedure

    A methodology is presented that allows researchers to identify which parameters have the largest effect on key parameter(s), and thereby a priori direct investigations to concentrate on the most important area(s) of concern. Laboratory testing is often used in research to establish the effect of one or more parameters on one or more other parameters of concern. Because laboratory testing often is ...


    By ASTM International

  • Landfill Compaction Test

    TANA E520 VS. BOMAG 1172-RB This compaction study has been conducted in Belvedere Landfill, Legoli, Italy. Compaction test was conducted between TANA E520 (52 ton) machine vs. Bomag 1175-BC (55 ton) machine. Test was done by Independent Surveyor Sauro Salvadori from STUDIO TECHNICO NESTI e SALVADORI (www.geolaser3D.com) and Belvedere Landfill ...


    By Tana Oy

  • Effect of temperature on streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity

    In this study, in situ and on-site permeameter tests were conducted in Clear Creek, Nebraska, USA to evaluate the effect of water temperature on streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity Kv. Fifty-two sediment cores were tested. Five of them were transferred to the laboratory for a series of experiments to evaluate the effect of water temperature on ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Unsaturated flow in anisotropic heterogeneous media: a centrifuge study

    Anisotropic and heterogeneous flow in unsaturated porous media is dependent on saturation conditions, and currently there exist limited options that adequately model this phenomenon. Herein, a modified unsaturated flow apparatus (UFA) and scaled centrifuge tests are used to investigate variations in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The method is used to find the unsaturated hydraulic ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Aquatic toxicity tests with substances that are poorly soluble in water and consequences for environmental risk assessment

    Aquatic toxicity tests with substances that are poorly soluble in water have been conducted using different methods, and estimates of toxicity have varied accordingly. The present study illustrates differences in toxicity values resulting from variation in test designs and solution preparation methods, and offers guidance on the best way to conduct these tests. Consequences for environmental risk ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Infiltration Testing for Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil Liners

    This paper describes the use of single ring infiltrometers for evaluating the hydraulic conductivity of compacted soil liners. Procedures are presented for installation and monitoring of infiltrometers in the field. Results of hydraulic conductivity estimated from infiltrometer tests on six laboratory model liners are presented and compared with the results of conventional laboratory tests. In ...


    By ASTM International

  • Integrity and perfomance evaluation of new generation desalting membranes

    Various RO membrane integrity monitoring methods are currently being evaluated during pilot testing at the North City Water Reclamation Plant (NCWRP) located in San Diego, CA. The main purpose of the testing is to assess both direct and indirect monitoring techniques currently available to measure the integrity and reliability of RO membranes during water reclamation. Specific methods being ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • A Note on Falling Headwater and Rising Tailwater Permeability Tests

    Falling-head permeability tests may be performed in two ways: (1) with a constant tailwater pressure and (2) with a rising tailwater pressure. Equations published in textbooks and manuals for calculating hydraulic conductivity from a falling-head test are for the first type of test only and are in error by a factor of 2 when applied to the second type of test. The correct equations for ...


    By ASTM International

  • Calculation of ceramic pot filter hydraulic conductivity using falling-head data

    Flowrate is used as a predictor of ceramic pot filter (CPF) disinfection effectiveness, and the relationship between flowrate and porosity has been examined in several studies. However, hydraulic conductivity, not porosity, is the constant of proportionality that describes flow through porous media. Equations have been developed to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of CPF side walls and bottom ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • FIFRA-Chemical Testing Issues

    This Article introduces the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA),1 and describes chemical substances for which testing must be conducted under FIFRA, other chemical testing that could be required, persons required to ...

  • Development of a bioavailability‐based risk assessment approach for nickel in freshwater sediments

    To assess nickel (Ni) toxicity and behavior in freshwater sediments, a large‐scale laboratory and field sediment testing program was conducted. The program used an integrative testing strategy to generate scientifically based threshold values for Ni in sediments and to develop integrated equilibrium‐partitioning based bioavailability models for assessing risks of Ni to benthic ecosystems. The ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay liners permeated with inorganic salt solutions

    Due to their low permeability, geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) and compacted clay liners (CCLs) are the main materials used in waste disposal landfills. The hydraulic conductivity of GCLs and CCLs is closely related to the chemistry of the permeant fluid. In this study, the effect on the hydraulic conductivity of clays of five different inorganic salt solutions as permeant fluid was ...


    By SAGE Publications Ltd

  • Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part III. Effluent Toxicity Tests pp

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), (2) Catostomidae, razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), (3) ...


    By Springer

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