critical infrastructure Articles

  • Systemic determination of infrastructure criticality

    The aim of critical infrastructure (CI) research efforts is to develop strategies to protect infrastructure systems by reducing hazards, risks, and threats from natural and manmade events. Given that no nation has unlimited resources, the current trend is to prioritise infrastructures so that the most 'critical' infrastructure systems are given priority in terms of resources. An extensive ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Protection of the Dutch critical infrastructures

    Societies are increasingly dependent on a set of critical products and services which comprise the Critical Infrastructure (CI). Using a methodological approach, The Netherlands determined its critical products and service and analysed the critical dependencies. The relative importance of a critical product or service was determined based upon both its importance for other critical products and ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Modelling interdependencies among critical infrastructures

    Over the years, Critical Infrastructures (CIs) have become increasingly automated and interlinked. This linkage between CIs results in a very complex and dynamic system which increases their vulnerability to failures. In fact, interdependencies between CIs are a true means of propagation of hazards from one network to another. Thus, when an infrastructure is experiencing difficulties and ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • New dilemmas in regulating critical infrastructures

    Regulation, as it was introduced to round off the great institutional changes in the critical infrastructures, has failed to fully curb strategic behaviour in these sectors. This is one of the reasons for the somewhat disappointing performance of these sectors. Regulation in its present shape is based on the mantra: independent, rule guided and transparent. This paper sets out how these ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Multiformalism techniques for critical infrastructure modelling

    This paper proposes an approach to use multiformalism techniques for critical infrastructure modelling. To this aim, the state of the art of related works on the subject is surveyed and a general scheme for intra and inter infrastructure models is described. Multiformalism approaches allow modellers to adapt the choice of formal languages to the nature, complexity and abstraction layer of the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Advanced trust negotiations in critical infrastructures

    Modern Critical Infrastructures (CIs) (power grids, power plants, gas and oil pipelines, etc.) are strongly interconnected at the national and international levels nowadays. The failure of one of them can originate cascading effects which might have a serious and disastrous impact on others, even on geographically far infrastructures. The exchange of information about vulnerabilities, threats and ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Simulation of heterogeneous and interdependent critical infrastructures

    In this paper, a simulation tool specifically designed for the analysis of heterogeneous and (inter)dependent infrastructures is proposed. The simulator, named Critical Infrastructure Simulation by Interdependent Agents (CISIA), adopts a modular and sufficiently abstract representation of the different infrastructures' components to allow consistent descriptions, starting from the incomplete and ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Emergent information security in critical infrastructures

    The growing tendency to inter-weaving infrastructures makes them more complex, less manageable, and more vulnerable to random system failures. Several information systems are usually added to manage and control such infrastructures. However, in this internet era these information infrastructures have increasingly become the targets of sophisticated (denial of service) attacks, which cause random ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Extensible threat taxonomy for critical infrastructures

    The European Union-sponsored project Vital Infrastructure Threats and Assurance (VITA) has the objective of exploring and showing new paths in Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) R&D. This paper describes one of VITA's results: the idea and the development of a novel extensible and generic threat taxonomy for Critical Infrastructures (CIs). Over 300 threats have been categorised. The threat ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • On the vulnerability of critical infrastructures: "seeing it coming"

    The paper addresses a number of concerns that are manifest in the safety management of critical infrastructures (CI) including, and especially, the effects of an increasing complexity on the safety managers' ability to comprehend and monitor the stability, predictability, and manoeuvrability of the systems at hand; the perverse effect of computer ubiquity on the CI safety quality; and, entailing ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Social network analysis of the vulnerabilities of interdependent critical infrastructures

    Interdependency among critical infrastructures contributes to vulnerabilities of those infrastructures. In this paper, the vulnerabilities of critical infrastructures are identified and analysed using social network analysis. In the analysis of network centrality, the importance of each critical infrastructure, in terms of its contribution to infrastructure interdependency, is ranked. The ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • An approach to identifying geographic interdependencies among critical infrastructures

    Interdependencies among Critical Infrastructures (CIs) are the basis for domino effects that may have serious consequences for society. Especially in urban areas, the high density of these infrastructures and their geographic proximity may result in failures due to geographic interdependencies, one of the four types of interdependencies that exist among CIs. Studying the issue of geographic ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Resilience and vulnerability in critical infrastructure systems – a physical analogy

    Systems consisting of parts – which may be seen as atomic (indivisible) components that usually come in large numbers are coupled with each other with a strength expressed as coupling 'energy' and respond to external stress – were often shown to share behavioural features largely indifferent to the nature of the system. Taking advantage of this, the paper employs the physics concept of hysteresis ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Simulation and anticipation of domino effects among critical infrastructures

    Interdependencies among critical infrastructures (CIs) are the cause of domino effects that may have serious consequences for society. To limit the consequences of these phenomena, it is important to be able to anticipate any situation that may trigger a domino effect. To do so, it is necessary to have a good understanding of how CIs are interlinked and how they rely on each other to properly ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The CRUTIAL reference critical information infrastructure architecture: a blueprint

    Critical infrastructures have evolved over the past decades to become largely computerised and interconnected all over the world. This generated the problem of achieving resilience of Critical Information Infrastructures (CII) against computer borne attacks and severe faults, similar to those observed in the internet. Governments and industry have been pushing an immense research effort in ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Protecting critical infrastructures through behavioural observation

    The increase in the use of ICT in critical infrastructures has meant that dependence on automation and control systems has brought new risk in an increasingly digital age. The increase in digitisation and interconnectivity has meant that cyber–attacks have the potential to bring operations to a halt from a remote location with devastating consequences. In response to this, in our previous work to ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Developing an index to assess the resilience of critical infrastructure

    In 2009, the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) began using a targeted questionnaire to produce individual vulnerability/protective-measure values for high-risk critical infrastructures and key resources. As sites continue to be assessed, the topic of resilience is emerging as a necessary focus in risk management and infrastructure protection. Enhancing the resilience of critical ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Assessing n–order dependencies between critical infrastructures

    The protection of critical infrastructures (CI) is a complex task, since it involves the assessment of both internal and external security risk. In the recent literature, methodologies have been proposed that can be used to identify organisation–wise security threats, or even first–order dependency risk (i.e., risk deriving from direct dependencies). However, there is a lack of work ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Critical infrastructures at risk: securing electric power supply

    The proper functioning of large infrastructures and in particular, the continuity of the vital services they provide is largely taken for granted, both by direct users and by those responsible for other, dependent infrastructures and services. The current paper addresses in a methodical manner, methods to deal with issues related to the risk and risk governance of critical infrastructures, with ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Towards a research framework for critical infrastructure interdependencies

    Critical Infrastructure (CI) interdependencies have important consequences for crisis management, particularly when the crises are cross-border. However, research into CI interdependencies is still immature. The nature of large-scale, cross-border crises in these systems of systems is not easily understood. We have identified several aspects that need to be investigated to gain a more complete ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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