drinking water assessment Articles

  • Turbidity tubes for drinking water quality assessments

    Turbidity tubes have been considered to be the field method of choice for drinking water quality monitoring in resource-limited contexts because of their relative simplicity and low cost in comparison with conventional (nephelometric) turbidimeters. These tubes utilise the principle of visual extinction of a submerged target for turbidity determination and were therefore thought to be subject to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Presence and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in surface water and drinking water

    Trace amounts of pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters in the nano- to microgram per liter range, and in drinking water in the nanogram/L range. The environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in surface waters have been evaluated and generally found to be low if the wastewater is treated before release to the environment. The human health risks of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessment of rainwater harvesting for drinking water supply in Bangladesh

    Rainwater harvesting is a potential option of water supply to the coastal and arsenic affected rural communities in Bangladesh and during the last few years, several projects were undertaken to promote and install various types of rainwater harvesting systems by government organizations and NGOs mainly for drinking and cooking water supply. A study was undertaken to assess the currently practiced ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessment of a membrane drinking water filter in an emergency setting

    The performance and acceptability of the NeroxTM membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households were visited and filter performance and use were assessed. Only 6% of the visited households still ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Development of performance assessment method for drinking water infrastructure

    In Japan, many drinking water systems were developed during the 1960s and 1970s, and a considerable proportion of them is now showing various signs of aging or seismic vulnerability. The major issue for many drinking water utilities is how to update those facilities in the best way to improve their deteriorating/insufficient performance. The existing performance assessment methods for water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water 2014

    The UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water report is produced by the World Health Organization (WHO) on behalf of UN-Water. It provides a global update on the policy frameworks, institutional arrangements, human resource base, and international and national finance streams in support of sanitation and drinking water. It is a substantive input into the activities ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water 2012

    The UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water report is produced every two years by the World Health Organization (WHO) on behalf of UN-Water. It provides a global update on the policy frameworks, institutional arrangements, human resource base, and international and national finance streams in support of sanitation and drinking water. It is a substantive input into ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A comparative assessment of institutional frameworks for managing drinking water quality

    The global burden of disease attributable to contaminated drinking water calls for effective strategies for ensuring drinking water quality. To characterize institutional and policy approaches towards water quality management, we compared national and sub-national institutional frameworks for drinking water provision and management in nine developing countries, focusing on roles, responsibilities ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • An assessment of consumer preferences on the drinking water market: today to the future

    In the 21st century, water has become a priority issue as a vital commodity which has no substitute and has growing economic and strategic value. It is predicted that a significant part of the world population will be faced with drinking water problems in the coming years. This study was focused on the determination of consumer preference trends for drinking water. In the scope of the study, the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Methods for microbiological quality assessment in drinking water: a comparative study

    The present study aimed to compare several methods for quantifying and discriminating between the different physiological states of a bacterial population present in drinking water. Flow cytometry (FCM), solid-phase cytometry (SPC), epifluorescence microscopy (MSP) and culture method performances were assessed by comparing the results obtained for different water samples. These samples, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The pollution source assessment tool for Sydney's drinking water catchments

    WaterNSW funds a range of interventions to minimise pollution within the drinking water catchments of Sydney. To assist with the process of targeting this expenditure, WaterNSW has developed a spatial analysis tool, known as the Pollution Source Assessment Tool (PSAT), which uses a hybrid of multi-criteria analysis and load-based methods to highlight high pollution potential sites and critical ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Computational modelling methods for assessing the risks from lead in drinking water

    Computational modelling methods have been used to predict the risks from lead in drinking water across a simulated supply zone, for a range of plumbosolvency conditions and a range of extents of occurrence of houses having a lead pipe, on the basis of five risk benchmarking methods. For the worst case modelled (very high plumbosolvency and 90% houses with a lead pipe) the percentage of houses at ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessing comprehensive performance of biofilm formation and water quality in drinking water distribution systems

    Environmental fluctuations shape biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) and therefore distributed water quality. Yet the comprehensive performance in response to complex environmental conditions remains unclear. We investigated biofilm formation and distributed water quality under various nutrients, including chlorine concentrations and hydrodynamic conditions. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Probabilistic exposure assessment to total trihalomethanes in drinking water: an EVT method

    It was proved that some adverse reproductive outcomes are associated with the exposure to trihalomethanes. We define the exposure as the probability with which the total trihalomethanes concentration in drinking water exceeds the maximum level. We apply the Peaks of Threshold model of Extreme Value Theory into assessing the exposure risk for the drinking water in Japanese distribution systems. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Incorporation of the Multiple Barrier Approach in drinking water risk assessment tools

    A number of existing risk assessment tools make reference to, or incorporate, a Multiple Barrier Approach to drinking water safety. Three waterborne disease outbreaks that occurred in developed nations were used as case studies to test a selected set of risk assessment tools. The outbreaks were used to determine how well the risk assessment tools identify hazards and vulnerabilities associated ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Bacteriological assessment of drinking water supply options in coastal areas of Bangladesh

    This study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality of alternative drinking water supply options in southwest coastal areas of Bangladesh. A total of 90 water samples were collected during both dry and wet seasons from household based rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs), community based rain water harvesting systems (CRWHSs), pond-sand filters (PSFs) and ponds. The samples were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Microbiological assessment of private drinking water supplies in Co. Cork, Ireland

    The microbiological quality of 75 private drinking water supply boreholes in Co. Cork, Ireland was assessed in order to determine the incidence of contamination and the potential pathways of such contamination. Microbiological analysis was carried out using the membrane filtration technique for the recovery of thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms. The sanitary protection of the supplies was ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reference pathogen numbers in urban stormwater for drinking water risk assessment

    Targeted stormwater event-based monitoring of adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter, the human health reference pathogens of viruses, protozoa and bacteria, respectively, was undertaken to determine numbers prior to water recycling via an aquifer. This allowed the determination of a 95th percentile of reference pathogen numbers in stormwater (2 n/L for adenoviruses, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Quantitative microbial risk assessment of drinking water treated with advanced water treatment process

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of waterborne disease in Japan. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was conducted to evaluate the health risk caused by this pathogen in drinking water treated with a supposed advanced treatment process including ozonation and granular activated carbon adsorption. Coagulation-sedimentation, rapid sand filtration, ozonation, and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Prospective environmental and economic assessment for biotreatment of micropollutants in drinking water resources in Denmark

    A prospective environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) and financial cost assessment is performed to the application of bioaugmentation to sand filters in Danish waterworks, to remove 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) from drinking water resources. Based on pilot-scale and laboratory-scale data, we compare bioaugmentation to current alternative strategies, namely granular activated carbon (GAC) ...


    By IWA Publishing

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