drinking water microbial monitoring Articles

  • Microbial indicators, pathogens and methods for their monitoring in water environment

    Water is critical for life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and die because of waterborne diseases. The analysis of drinking water for the presence of indicator microorganisms is key to determining microbiological quality and public health safety. However, drinking water-related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. Moreover, different indicator ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water microbial quality during drinking water treatment technology and distribution provided by two Romanian companies

    Under European Economic Area Agreement, Romania and Norway have developed a project for monitoring the quality of raw and potable water (from production technology until distribution) supplied by two Romanian water companies. In the present study was investigated the microbiological quality of water, which was compared with organic matter loads. Resulting free chlorine and trihalomethane ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Estimation of pathogen concentrations in a drinking water source using hydrodynamic modelling and microbial source tracking

    The faecal contamination of drinking water sources can lead to waterborne disease outbreaks. To estimate a potential risk for waterborne infections caused by faecal contamination of drinking water sources, knowledge of the pathogen concentrations in raw water is required. We suggest a novel approach to estimate pathogen concentrations in a drinking water source by using microbial source ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hand-pumps as reservoirs for microbial contamination of well water

    The retention and release of total coliforms and Escherichia coli was investigated in hand-pumps removed from tubewells tapping a faecally contaminated aquifer in Matlab, Bangladesh, and from a new hand-pump deliberately spiked with E. coli. All hand-pumps were connected to reservoirs of sterile water and flushed. Faecal coliforms were observed in the discharge from all three of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Potential applications of next generation DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons in microbial water quality monitoring

    The applicability of next generation DNA sequencing (NGS) methods for water quality assessment has so far not been broadly investigated. This study set out to evaluate the potential of an NGS-based approach in a complex catchment with importance for drinking water abstraction. In this multi-compartment investigation, total bacterial communities in water, faeces, soil, and sediment samples were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Practical applications of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) for water safety plans

    The absence of indicator organisms in drinking water does not provide sufficient guarantee for microbial safety. Therefore the water utilities are implementing water safety plans (WSP) to safeguard drinking water quality. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can be used to provide objective quantitative input for the WSP. This study presents several applications of treatment modelling in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Real-time Total Microbial Measurement For Water Distribution Systems

    A well-managed water distribution system is essential for maintaining a healthy water supply. The World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority on health (World Health Organization, 2008), has compiled the Water Safety Plan which reflects this. With over 2.3 million deaths per year caused by water born diseases (Davidson, et al., 2005), safeguarding water systems is of ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, six ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Quantifying micro-organism removal for safe drinking water supplies

    Over the past ten years the management of microbiological drinking water quality in The Netherlands has shifted from curative administration toward a more preventative strategy. This shift in policy came as a result of the findings of reports from other developed countries which highlighted the risk from persistent pathogens such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia, some enteroviruses; and the pathogenic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Mafikeng, South Africa

    Mafikeng, the capital of the North West Province, receives water from two sources, namely the Molopo eye and the Modimola dam. Once treated, the potable water is mixed and supplied to the city via distribution systems. This study was designed to assess the quality of drinking water in Mafikeng and also to determine whether the water from the two sources has an impact on the mixed water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reference pathogen numbers in urban stormwater for drinking water risk assessment

    Targeted stormwater event-based monitoring of adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter, the human health reference pathogens of viruses, protozoa and bacteria, respectively, was undertaken to determine numbers prior to water recycling via an aquifer. This allowed the determination of a 95th percentile of reference pathogen numbers in stormwater (2 n/L for adenoviruses, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessing protozoan risks for surface drinking water supplies in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, pose a human health risk when present in drinking water. To minimize health risks, the Nova Scotia Treatment Standards for surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water require a 3-log reduction for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. This study ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The South Australian Safe Drinking Water Act: summary of the first year of operation

    The Safe Drinking Water Act 2011 was introduced in South Australia to provide clear direction to drinking water providers on how to achieve water safety. The Act requires drinking water providers to register with SA Health and develop a risk management plan (RMP) for their water supply that includes operational and verification monitoring plans and an incident notification and communication ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Well water quality in rural Nicaragua using a low-cost bacterial test and microbial source tracking

    Water-related diseases, particularly diarrhea, are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Monitoring water quality on a global scale is crucial to making progress in terms of population health. Traditional analytical methods are difficult to use in many regions of the world in low-resource settings that face severe water quality issues due to the inaccessibility ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A Comparison Of Microbial Repair Mechanisms With Low Pressure And Medium Pressure UV Lamps

    Introduction It is well-known that bacteria and other microorganisms are capable of repairing their DNA following damage by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Known as ‘reactivation’, it is a natural defense mechanism that has evolved over millions of years. Some microorganisms need visible light in order to repair their DNA (known as ‘photoreactivation’), while others can repair their DNA without light ...


    By Aquionics Inc

  • How Does Lead Get into Drinking Water? How Can Local Municipalities Remove It?

    In light of the Flint water crisis—when, in 2014, Flint officials changed the city’s water source from the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department to the Flint River, leaching unsafe levels of lead into the public water supply due to improper treatment—many people are wondering if the same thing could happen in their own communities and homes. Some folks believe this could be the ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Contemporary design, operation, and monitoring of potable reuse systems

    Water scarcity driven by population growth, lack of conventional supplies, and climate change impacts have resulted in increasing interest worldwide in drinking water augmentation using treated wastewater effluents. Potable reuse can occur indirect or direct, but is also practiced in many places as ‘de facto reuse’, where upstream wastewater discharge occurs to drinking water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biofilm control strategies in industrial processing waters

    Bacterial biofilms cause a number of serious problems for industrial fluid processing operations. Mechanical blockages, impedance of heat transfer processes and microbially induced corrosion result in billions of dollars of losses each year. In engineered systems, such as cooling water systems, food processing, and other industrial applications possible risk to public health and product spoilage ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • Reduction of TTHM and endocrine disrupting compounds in municipal wastewater

    The US Geological Service and Environmental Protection Agency have been monitoring the increasing levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in freshwater streams, aquifers, and off-shore coastal waters for the past decade, with the primary identified chemicals being residuals from pharmaceuticals, and petroleum-based fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides (Pyrines and Pyroids). This ...


  • On tap: recreational waterborne disease at an all-time high

    Levels of recreational waterborne disease are at their highest since reporting began in 1978, suggesting the need for interventions aimed at reducing risks in natural and treated water systems. More outbreaks are reported related to recreational  waterborne diesease than drinking water sources. Every two years the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a report on waterborne ...

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