drinking water model Articles

  • Biocorrosion in drinking water pipes

    Copper is widely used in drinking water distribution systems due to its relatively low cost and favorable mechanical properties. However, copper corrosion may generate copper concentrations exceeding the thresholds prescribed by international drinking water standards. In-situ measurements performed in an actual system found that the copper mass released under flowing water conditions (pipe ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Drinking Water Resource Protection, Germany

    Reference Project: Drinking Water Resource Protection, Germany In the catchment area of a major drinking water supplier in western Germany increasing nitrate concentrations were noticed within a deep water-bearing layer. Although high nitrate concentrations, resulting from regional intensive application of fertilizers, were known from shallow layers in the area, they were new to the deep ...

  • Homeland Security for Drinking Water Supplies

    As it has done with other jurisdictions, Congress has recently passed legislation aimed at protecting our nation's drinking water resources. Historically, water supply protection has been a high priority, including reservoir protection, continuous monitoring, and secure and redundant facilities to ensure an uninterrupted supply of drinking water. The Clean Water Act (1972), requires pollution ...


    By AECOM

  • Hydrodynamic modelling and forecasting of microbial water quality in a drinking water source

    Faecal contamination often enters drinking water sources through emergency discharges, which occur as a result of technical malfunctions or a hydraulic overload of the sewer system during periods of heavy rain. In October–November 2012, several emergency discharges entered Lake Rådasjön – a drinking water source for Gothenburg, Sweden. To describe and forecast the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • An exploration of multilevel modeling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation

    Monitoring progress towards the targets for access to safe drinking-water and sanitation under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requires reliable estimates and indicators. We analyzed trends and reviewed current indicators used for those targets. We developed continuous time series for 1990 to 2015 for access to improved drinking-water sources and improved sanitation facilities by country ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Linking discolouration modelling and biofilm behaviour within drinking water distribution systems

    High quality drinking water exits modern treatment works, yet water quality degradation such as discolouration continues to occur within drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Discolouration is observed globally, suggesting a common process despite variations in source, treatment, disinfection and network configurations. The primary cause of discolouration has been identified as ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Modelling of haloacetic acid concentrations in a United Kingdom drinking water system

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are formed during the chlorination of water containing organic matter but predictive models for their formation are not well established at present and have not been applied to UK water systems. In this paper two different modelling approaches have been applied and evaluated to a selected UK drinking water system. The first approach involved the development of statistical ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pilot study and modeling for salinity reduction in drinking water in Berjand

    The salinity of the ground water in Berjand, the capital of the province of South Khoorasan in Iran, has been a matter of concern since the ground water is the only source of drinking water in the city. Firstly, the authors studied the effects of both nano-filtration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) for the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the north and the south of the city. Secondly, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of control strategies for drinking water treatment plants using a process model

    This research adds a method to evaluate control strategies to the design methodology for drinking water treatment plants. A process model dealing with parameters related to the calcium carbon dioxide equilibrium was set up. Using the process model, the existing control strategy was compared with a new control strategy and the effects of two different sets of input data were studied. It was ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effects of phosphorus on biofilm disinfections in model drinking water distribution systems

    Drinking water biofilm development is affected by the available nutrient levels and the presence of disinfectants. Phosphorus is recognized as another important limiting nutrient besides organic carbon. In this study, drinking water biofilms were developed in annular reactors to examine the effects of phosphorus on the biofilm disinfections with free chlorine and monochloramine. Phosphorus ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Computational modelling methods for assessing the risks from lead in drinking water

    Computational modelling methods have been used to predict the risks from lead in drinking water across a simulated supply zone, for a range of plumbosolvency conditions and a range of extents of occurrence of houses having a lead pipe, on the basis of five risk benchmarking methods. For the worst case modelled (very high plumbosolvency and 90% houses with a lead pipe) the percentage of houses at ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Strontium adsorption and desorption reactions in model drinking water distribution systems

    Divalent cationic strontium (Sr2+) adsorption to and desorption from iron corrosion products were examined in two model drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). One system was maintained with chlorine-disinfected drinking water and the other with the same water with secondary chloramine disinfection. Flow conditions simulated primary transmission lines (constant flow) and residential ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of chemical oxygen demand to drinking water

    “This study investigated the use of a photoelectrochemical chemical oxygen demand (peCOD) analyzer for the detection of model organic compounds and natural organic matter (NOM) from four drinking water treatment plants in Nova Scotia, Canada. Most model organic compounds showed ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Challenges in the implementation of a national programme on drinking water

    Provision of safe drinking water is a challenging problem requiring immediate attention. The skewed distribution of rainfall, inefficient use of water, presence of a variety of contaminants, such as fluoride, arsenic, iron and salinity, in most of the sources, and pollution by various economic activities have been the factors responsible for inadequate resources against the increasing demand due ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Impact of plumbing age on copper levels in drinking water

    Theory and practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the ‘aging effect’ founded in the proposed evolution of copper(II) corrosion by-products on the pipe surface, based on theoretical ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Grundfos Alldos provides clean drinking water in Athens

    In time for the Olympic Games, Grundfos Alldos equipped the four existing Athens water treatment plants in Galatsi, Melindi, Kiourka and Aspropyrgos with state-of-the-art disinfection systems and put them into operation. In order to ensure that everything ran smoothly, a cutting-edge SCADA system was installed for remote monitoring. This means that plants, sometimes 40 km apart, can be monitored ...


  • Return of drinking water supply in Paris to public control

    The ‘reclaiming’ by Paris of its water back into public hands is a paradox in the homeland of transnational water companies and at a time when the European Commission rather favours the liberalisation of public services ‘of general economic interest’. Yet what has happened is more complex. A quick historical review of management formulas in Europe reveals both the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • QMRA and water safety management: review of application in drinking water systems

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), the assessment of microbial risks when model inputs and estimated health impacts are explicitly quantified, is a valuable tool to support water safety plans (WSP). In this paper, research studies undertaken on the application of QMRA in drinking water systems were reviewed, highlighting their relevance for WSP. The important elements for practical ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biofilms and bacteriological water quality in a domestic installation model simulating daily drinking water consumption

    The biofilm formation potential of a drinking water supply system is related to the chemical, microbiological and hydrodynamic characteristics of water, and to the pipe materials in contact with water flow. The goals of this study were: to determine the biofilm dynamics in a model of four drinking water installations, to simulate daily household water consumption; to compare the biofilms ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Research on raw water quality assessment oriented to drinking water treatment based on the SVM model

    Raw water quality variation has a great effect on drinking water treatment. To improve the adaptivity of drinking water treatment and stabilize the quality of treated water, a raw water quality assessment method, which is based upon the support vector machine (SVM), is developed in this study. Compared to existing raw water quality assessment methods, the assessment method studied herein is ...


    By IWA Publishing

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