drinking water sanitation Articles

  • Estimating effects of improved drinking water and sanitation on cholera

    Demand for adequate provision of drinking-water and sanitation facilities to promote public health and economic growth is increasing in the rapidly urbanizing countries of the developing world. With a panel of data on Asia and Africa from 1990 to 2008, associations are estimated between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, the case rates in given outbreaks, the mortality rates associated with ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water 2014

    The UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water report is produced by the World Health Organization (WHO) on behalf of UN-Water. It provides a global update on the policy frameworks, institutional arrangements, human resource base, and international and national finance streams in support of sanitation and drinking water. It is a substantive input into the activities ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water 2012

    The UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water report is produced every two years by the World Health Organization (WHO) on behalf of UN-Water. It provides a global update on the policy frameworks, institutional arrangements, human resource base, and international and national finance streams in support of sanitation and drinking water. It is a substantive input into ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Survival of pathogens in drinking water plumbing systems: impact factors and sanitation options

    The objective was to determine impact factors that would allow Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila to survive sanitation measures of household drinking water systems. Therefore, different disinfectant concentrations were tested under different operating conditions in close-to-practice experiments. Particular attention was paid to the viable but non-culturable ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply

    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • An exploration of multilevel modeling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation

    Monitoring progress towards the targets for access to safe drinking-water and sanitation under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requires reliable estimates and indicators. We analyzed trends and reviewed current indicators used for those targets. We developed continuous time series for 1990 to 2015 for access to improved drinking-water sources and improved sanitation facilities by country ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Drinking Water Sources, Sanitation and Safeguarding Desalination: a critical element of water solutions for the 21st century

    In the face of climate change and the water needs from a growing world population, the use of seawater or brackish water through desalination has increased in importance. The energy efficiency and production costs for desalination plants have been markedly improved. Recent techniques have made it possible to acquire reasonably cheap desalinated water from plants that are fully powered from wind ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Bridging the Sanitation Gap

    As the development community celebrates being on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals drinking water targets, it will be too easy to overlook the fact that sanitation lags far behind. More than a billion people worldwide still have no access to a toilet. The immediate health impact is obvious, but the 'sanitation gap' also undermines other development objectives because of its effect ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Giardiasis in the United States – an epidemiologic and geospatial analysis of county-level drinking water and sanitation data, 1993–2010

    Giardiasis is the most commonly reported intestinal parasitic infection in the United States. Outbreak investigations have implicated poorly maintained private wells, and hypothesized a role for wastewater systems in giardiasis transmission. Surveillance data consistently show geographic variability in reported giardiasis incidence. We explored county-level associations between giardiasis ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    Small-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10?69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important contribution to drinking water and sanitation in a situation where many governments cannot be the only one to ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Disparities in access to clean water and sanitation: institutional causes

    This paper uses cross-national data from 2002 and 2004 to assess the effects of key institutional variables on the improvement of access to safe water and sanitation. Two key variables of specific interest are a country's commitment to ‘quality regulation’ and the country's long-term development path. The evidence for the impact of those factors on expanding or contracting access to water and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Realizing the human rights to water and sanitation: A Handbook

    UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation. September 2014 Since 2010, when the United Nation General Assembly explicitly recognized the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation and the Human Rights Council reaffirmed this recognition, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation has received ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Azerbaijan National Water Supply and Sanitation Project

    The water supply and sewer system in Azerbaijan is characterized by old, damaged and largely dysfunctional infrastructure and is financial constrained and poorly operated. This results in the level and the quality of the water supply and wastewater treatment (WWT) services especially in small towns being significantly degraded. Water shortage and the use of dirty water for drinking have ...


    By Huckbody Environmental

  • Water Supply and Sanitation (WASH) in Harmony with Nature

    The grassy hillsides and vast forests around Rwambu wetland in south-western Uganda are not only a beautiful sight to see - it is fertile land which sustains agricultural based livelihoods, such as coffee, tea, bananas and beans. The Rwambu wetland is also a success story of integrated nature-based solutions. In the not so distant past, the people of Rwambu were up against a quickly ...


    By Wetlands International

  • MIOX offers another sanitizing alternative

    It was with great interest that I read your article titled “Drinking It In”(February 2007). The story specifically mentions filtrations and UV as two examples of water technologies used in the aquatics business. I would like to bring to your readers’ attention another promising technology that got its start in the municipal water market. Chlorine-based mixed oxidants originally were developed for ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • Economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in Bangladesh

    This study estimates the nonmonetary, financial, and economic costs of poor sanitation in the areas of health, drinking water, and domestic water, as well as user preference and welfare. Financial costs refer to the direct financial expense paid in monetary terms by someone, such as changes in household and government spending and real income losses for households. Nonmonetary costs consist of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Convergence in access to safe water and adequate sanitation: an analysis across countries and time

    This short note reports that developing countries have tended to converge in terms of percentage of population having access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation between 1980 and 1993-1996. It suggests that this represents a good message, but no reason for complacency. Enormous efforts are still needed until all people on earth can enjoy access to safe drinking water and adequate ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Private sector involvement in drinking water supply in Ghana

    Two approaches by Private Sector Involvement (PSI) in drinking water supply are followed in Ghana. In the urban areas the public utility (Ghana Water Company Limited) now has private sector management via a management contract, whereas in the small towns and rural areas the responsibility for water services is decentralised. The District Assemblies use the Community Water and Sanitation Agency ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Missing the Millennium Development Goal targets for water and sanitation in urban areas

    "This paper reviews progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for water and sanitation in urban areas. Drawing on UN data, it shows the disastrous performance of many low- and middle-income nations in relation to the goal of halving the proportion without drinking water sources piped on premises and improved sanitation between 1990 and 2015. It also describes how even such a poor ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • OECD Report – Meeting the Challenge of Financing Water and Sanitation: Tools and Approaches

    The investments needed to deliver sustainable water and sanitation services, including the funds that are needed to operate and maintain the infrastructure, expand their coverage and upgrade service delivery to meet current social and environmental expectations, are huge. Yet, most systems are underfunded with dire consequences for water and sanitation users, especially the poorest. Providing ...


    By IWA Publishing

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