electrical conductivity Articles

  • Flow Rate Measurement in Full Pipes Using the Transit Time Method

    Particularly in large diameters the relevance of water volume measurement is growing. The challenge with cooling water or fresh water processes is to generate accurate flow recordings or to document and to control individual consumptions and withdrawal quantities. Flow detection, however, particularly in large diameters is highly demanding. In such cases the transit time measurement thanks to its ...


    By NIVUS GmbH

  • Compliance Trends in 2017: what to expect, how to prepare

    Looking back on 2016, it was without doubt a year of political upheaval and increased scrutiny on the environmental, social and human rights implications of government regulations, corporate practices and consumer habits. In 2017, these changes will fuel additional compliance considerations for corporate supply chains around the world. While the future is anything but certain, our regulatory ...


    By Assent Compliance Inc.

  • Importance of Inspecting Reservoirs

    Inspecting Reservoirs – what is the importance of them, why they are inspected, and how ROVs help pave the way for low-cost, regular maintenance. What is a Reservoir? Deriving from the French word réservoir meaning “storehouse,” a reservoir is exactly that – a storage place for water. More often than not, these bodies of water are ...


    By Deep Trekker Inc.

  • Electrical conductance in a typical linear and cyclic quantum wire

    Theoretical studies on electrical conductance in nanostructures which consist of two semi-infinite leads separated by a typical molecular wire are carried out within Green's function (GF) formalism in the linear regime. For this reason, the GF of extended molecular wire is obtained. Hence, the electrical conductance of the system is derived theoretically, using the GF elements and wire ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Electrical conduction of calf-thymus DNA molecules

    We present theoretical calculations to explain the behaviour of electrical conduction in calf-thymus DNA molecules trapped between a gap of 10 nm Au electrodes. Our work further explains the experimental I-V data reported for these DNA molecules that shows both large electrical hysteresis and voltage gap. We attribute their data to energy conservation within the molecules and electrons transfer ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Los Angeles County WRRF Embraces Codigestion

    Technology to produce food waste slurry key to project implementation - and helps generators comply with California organics recycling mandates. The Sanitation Districts’ JWPCP in Carson (CA) treats an average of 280 million gallons/day of wastewater. One of the two anaerobic digestion tanks above has been used for codigestion, with the second serving as the control. Photos ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Conductivity Theory and Measurement

    Electrical conductivity is a measure of the ability of a solution to cany* a current. Current flow in liquids differs from mat in metal conductors in that electrons cannot flow freely, but must be carried by ions. Ions are formed when a solid such as salt is dissolved in a liquid to form electrical components having opposite electrical charges. For example, sodium chloride separates to form Na" ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Electrical and optical properties of p–type conductive NiO–Pt thin films

    In this work, we deposited NiO–Pt composite films with varying Pt content in the range of 0-25.83 at.%. An ultra high electrical resistivity (ρ) is obtained and cannot be detected by four point probe measurement when the Pt content in NiO films is lower than 1.46 at.%. As the Pt content in the films rises to 4.65 at.%, the ρ value can be reduced to 33.40 Ω cm, and it decreases significantly to ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The fundamental conductivity and resistivity of water

    Pure water has a very low. but not quite zero, electrical conductivity. This conductivity provides a probe into fundamental properties of water, including the electrochemical mobility of the hydrogen and hydroxide ions. Deviation from this value is a measure of trace ionic impurities. Ultrapure water (UPW). with impurities at or below the sub-parts-per-billion range, is used extensively in many ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • Determining Bentonite Content in Soil-Bentonite Mixtures Using Electrical Conductivity

    A procedure based on electrical conductivity is described for measuring bentonite content in soil-bentonite mixtures having a wide range of bentonite contents. Standard equipment used for sedimentation analysis and an electrical conductivity meter are required. The procedure employs calibration curves relating electrical conductivity and bentonite concentration for soil-bentonite-water slurries. ...


    By ASTM International

  • Synthesis and characterisation of electrical conducting nanoporous carbon structures based on pyrogallol-formaldehyde

    Electrical conducting carbon (ECC) nanoporous structures were explored by changing the pyrolysis temperature of organic xerogel compounds prepared by sol-gel method from pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF) mixture in water using picric acid as catalyst. The effect of these preparation parameters on the structural and electrical properties of the obtained ECCs was studied. The obtained results revealed ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Conducting core-sheath polyurethane-PEDOT nanofibres for conducting polymer actuator

    Conducting core-sheath nanofibres were prepared by the vapour-phase polymerisation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDOT) on electrospun polyurethane (PU) nanofibres both with and without incorporating graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) as the core part. The morphology, mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, and electroactive actuation of the core-sheath nanofibres were investigated. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Estimating soil conductivity for GPR surveys

    The results of a ground penetrating radar survey depends on many factors. In order to get useful data and good penetration, one of the conditions is that the conductivity of the ground is not too high. The conductivity of the material together with the operating frequency and the dielectric constant allow us to calculate the loss factor that is used to roughly estimate the theoretical ...


    By Geoscanners AB

  • Electrical conductivity as a state indicator for the start-up period of anaerobic fixed-bed reactors

    The aim of this work was to analyse the applicability of electrical conductivity sensors for on-line monitoring the start-up period of an anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The evolution of bicarbonate concentration and methane production rate was analysed. Strong linear relationships between electrical conductivity and both bicarbonate concentration and methane production rate were observed. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Vertical disparity in electrical conductivity of groundwater: inferring water-bearing fractures in granitic aquifer

    A detailed study was conducted in hard rock terrain for delineating water-bearing fractures using electrical conductivity (EC) logs. The EC logs of groundwater were taken both in pre- and post-monsoon seasons of the year 2001; in 25 borewells in a small granitic watershed at an interval of 1 m right from the water table (though narrow spacing wherever required) till the depth to bottom of the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Extraordinary electron and phonon transport through metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocomposite: decoupling electrical and thermal conductivities for thermoelectric application

    We report a simple method involving mechanical attrition followed by hot press sintering to fabricate tablet samples consisting of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) dispersed in luminescent silicon nanocrystal (Si NC) matrix. A dramatic increase in current by almost six orders of magnitude is observed for this type of Si NC-Ag NP hybrid nanocomposite compared with bare Si NC-based tablets. Collective ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Impact of the As Samra wastewater treatment plant upgrade on the water quality (COD, electrical conductivity, TP, TN) of the Zarqa River

    The impact of the As Samra wastewater treatment plant upgrade on the quality of the Zarqa River (ZR) water was investigated. Time series data that extend from October 2005 until December 2009 obtained by a state-of-the-art telemetric monitoring system were analyzed at two monitoring stations located 4 to 5 km downstream of the As Samra effluent confluence with the Zarqa River and about 25 km ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hybrid materials of conducting polymers with natural fibres and silicates

    The preparation, characterisation and properties of new hybrid materials of the conducting polymers polypyrrole and polyaniline with cellulose substrates in the form of paper fibres, paper sheets and wood; merino wool fibres; and kaolinite particles are presented. The conducting polymers form as spheres of about 50-150 nm that are fused together as a continuous coating which fully encapsulates ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Should your company be conducting life cycle analyses?

    Many companies have already answered yes to that question – for a combination of reasons typically related to stakeholder interest, key customer demands, public perception, and competitive positioning.  In fact, life cycle analysis (LCA) has increasingly become an important tool in mature corporate sustainability programs, providing organizations with a consistent methodology for ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Conducting The Phase I Assessment - Records Review

     This is the second in a series of five articles relating to conducting Phase I Environmental Site assessments. Each article attempts to give the reader a thorough understanding of a specific aspect of the Phase I process and Clayton’s commitment to meeting or exceeding the requirements of ASTM Standard E 1527 Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site ...


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