elemental trace level Articles

  • In Situ Biological Treatment for Soil, Sediment, and Sludge

    The main advantage of in situ treatment is that it allows soil to be treated without being excavated and transported, resulting in potentially significant cost savings. However, in situ treatment generally requires longer time periods, and there is less certainty about the uniformity of treatment because of the variability in soil and aquifer characteristics and because the efficacy of the ...

  • Bioremediation of soil

    In our experience, Bioremediation is best accomplished with Bio-augmentation, the addition of large numbers of selected micro-organisms grown in the production laboratory. In addition to bio-augmentation, several physical and chemical parameters must be controlled in order to obtain optimal growth and maximum degradation of soil contaminants. The major factors that are controlled during ...

  • The secret code of software validation….in 5 easy steps

    Software validation is often considered to be overwhelming for some organizations. With all the requirements and guidance specified in the standards and regulations, it appears to be a monumental task. However, it is not as complex as some may think. This tangled web can be simplified so that it is more easily understood and not just meet regulatory requirements but serve as a useful business ...

  • Opening the envelope on bearing vibration

    A sophisticated signal processing technique can help to pinpoint bearing failure at an early stage. Chris Hansford, Managing Director at Hansford Sensors, explains. Experienced operators can often tell if a machine is not working properly, on the basis that is does not ‘sound right’. The same principle can be applied – using modern electronics – to identify the exact cause ...


    By Hansford Sensors

  • A quick guide to oil analysis for engine test applications

    Reliability testing is a very important component of new engine development. Engineers need to fully understand and chart the engine lifetime performance under a variety of conditions before mass production may be considered. Many important performance data parameters are collected in real time through the many different types of sensors that are connected to the engine in the test cell and oil ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Control VOC`s in Refinery Wastewater

    Oil and water do not mix, like many of life’s one-liners this statement is basically true but not the whole story. Many hydrocarbon liquids, particularly aromatics, have significant solubilities in water: Benzene 1800 PPMVToluene 470Ethyl Benzene 150Xylenes 150 Petroleum refineries do not like salts in their feedstock since these corrode and foul process equipment. The first refining step is ...


    By AMCEC Inc.

  • Transducers – “A lifetime of quality”

    At Brüel & Kjær, transducers are a core part of our business. They have been for more than50 years – almost a lifetime! The quality of our transducers is world-renowned. It is the result of our unique experience and knowledge, backed up by meticulous testing and quality control. Experience, Knowledge and Innovation Our experience and knowledge, acquired over ...

  • Properties and Behavior of Inorganics in Contaminated Soil

    Often, specific technologies may be ruled out, or the list of potential technologies may be immediately narrowed, on the basis of the presence or absence of one or more of the chemical groups. The relative amounts of each may tend to favor certain technologies. Metals may be found in the elemental form, but more often they are found as salts mixed in the soil. At the present time, treatment ...

  • Lead and Zinc Smelting Industry - Pollution Prevention Guidelines

    Introduction Pollution Prevention Guidelines to provide technical advice and guidance to staff and consultants involved in pollution-related projects. The guidelines represent state-of-the-art thinking on how to reduce pollution emissions from the production process. In many cases, the guidelines provide numerical targets for reducing pollution, as well as maximum ...


    By The World Bank

  • Crossflow Membrane Filtration High-Purity Water Systems

    INTRODUCTION As the electronics industry continues to provide us with such products as high resolution television, notebook size portable computers and cars with automatic navigation systems, it becomes necessary to produce semiconductors with finer device geometries to allow for efficient placement of more circuits per a given area. This requires increased control of a semiconductor's material ...

  • Ionising Radiation

    Introduction The energy level of some types of radiation is high enough so that when they interact with matter they cause the formation of electrically charged particles or ion-pairs and break molecular bonds. These so-called ionising radiations are by their nature potentially harmful to life; at high doses they can be lethal and at lower doses can cause genetic damage. Ionising radiation occurs ...

  • What is XRF? | Spectroscopy Guides

    X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) is a technique widely used in elemental analysis. It is based on the principle that an atom's inner electrons, when bombarded with high energy radiation such as X-rays, are ejected. The atom relaxes by emitting photons of characteristic wavelengths, which are used to identify the element.  If diagrams do not animate, try ...


    By Specac Limited

  • Management of Hazardous Wastes

    ' Management of hazardous waste is a growing concern in many countries. The long-term impacts and costs of improper disposal can be very high and the emphasis must be on prevention. A comprehensive management system should include (i) policies, institutions and effective regulations and (ii) adequate and acceptable disposal facilities (either public or private). This note outlines the key ...


    By The World Bank

  • Water Sustainability

    I7.1  | Water Optimization – 30% Groundwater Use Reduction Tabatha Pellerin, Senior Program Manager, AECOM AECOM assisted the Entergy Lewis Creek gas/coal fired electric power plant with water conservation efforts prompted by a goal of 30% ...

  • Types of bioremediation and their modes of action

    An Urgent Call for Change in U.S. Oil Spill Response With Bioremediation Agent Type EA* bearing out as a workable first response alternative to the use of chemical dispersants, contrasting evidence has become even clearer that dispersant use has been a huge failure. Dispersants have proven to be an inadequate response method with more and more studies showing an ...

  • Low-Flow (Minimal Drawdown) Ground-Water Sampling Procedures

    Untitled Document Background The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a group of ground-water ...


    By Solinst Canada Ltd.

  • Benefits of the Nieka Fusion Fluxer | Spectroscopy Guides

    Specac have long been involved with presses and dies that we have supplied into the XRF analysis market for pressed pellet sample preparation; joining up with Nieka who are based in Canada is a natural extension and one we are proud to achieve. Nieka produce the Fusion Fluxer, a leading tool for preparing sample fusion beads ...


    By Specac Limited

  • Today’s vulnerable diesel fuel

    When the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandated a change to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in 2007, it caused some significant problems for fleets. ...


    By Semler Industries Inc.

  • Flood modeling and mitigation measures in an Urban Environment –Victoria, Australia - Case Study

    Abstract Accurate prediction of flood extents in urban catchments is extremely difficult without having a 1d/2d integrated modeling approach. The integrated flood modeling is becoming popular and a new benchmark for urban flood risk management studies. City of Glen Eira in Victoria, Australia is a developed metropolitan municipality. The council is responsible for the management ...


    By XP Solutions

  • Overview of Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE) Optical Emission Spectroscopy for In-Service Oil Analysis

    Introduction The basis of modern oil analysis is the use of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) to measure the ppm (parts per million) levels of wear metals, contaminants and additives in oil samples. Whatever else an oil lab may measure, a multi-elemental analysis is the core of in-service oil analysis. This paper gives an overview of Rotating Disc Electrode Elemental Spectroscopy and its ...


    By Spectro Scientific

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