enhanced sand filtration Articles

  • Rapid sand filtration pretreatment for SWRO: microbial maturation dynamics and filtration efficiency of organic matter..Desalination 286 :120, 2012

    Rapid sand filtration (RSF) is used today as an effective pretreatment procedure to enhance water quality prior to reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in desalination plants. RSF in newly operated desalination facilities requires a maturation period of about three months before the feedwater may be filtered efficiently. To date the desalination industry RSF has regarded RSF mainly as a ...

  • Understanding Crossflow Filtration

    There's a lot of attention being given to water availability and purity, with good reason. Obtaining enough water is a struggle in some areas. In others, water is tainted with contaminants. It is therefore predictable that regulations and economics will force careful water treatment and stress water re-use. Fortunately, there are water treatment methods that can help you meet the water quality ...


  • Crossflow Membrane Filtration High-Purity Water Systems

    INTRODUCTION As the electronics industry continues to provide us with such products as high resolution television, notebook size portable computers and cars with automatic navigation systems, it becomes necessary to produce semiconductors with finer device geometries to allow for efficient placement of more circuits per a given area. This requires increased control of a semiconductor's material ...

  • Nanofiltration for enhanced removal of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors in swimming pool water–retention and water quality estimation

    Three nanofiltration (NF) membranes with a chlorine tolerance ≥ 1 mg L-1 were applied to reduce DBPs and their precursors in swimming pool water. A lab scale plant with crossflow modules was installed in by-pass at the sand filter outlet of a swimming pool for a period of several weeks. The chlorine tolerances of the membranes SB90 and NP030 were found to be adequate for filtration under swimming ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Impact of kaolinite clay particles on the filtration of Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres

    Granular filtration remains a key barrier for Cryptosporidium removal in water treatment plants without UV irradiation. To assess the impact of clay particles in source water on Cryptosporidium removal efficiency by granular filtration, this study investigated the co-transport of Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres and kaolinite particles in sand columns. To ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Advanced Filtration Media (AFM): Clean Water Market Analysis

    Executive Summary This report has been prepared by Entec to provide a market assessment of the application of AFM (Advanced Filtration Media) for potable water treatment. The work has been carried out on behalf of BREWEB, the Environmental Body of the Building Research Establishment and Dryden Aqua Limited, the developers of AFM. AFM is a high quality product that has been developed as ...

  • Traditional and novel reservoir management techniques to enhance water quality for subsequent potable water treatment

    Thames Water treats approximately 2800Ml/d of water originating mainly from the lowland rivers Thames and Lee for supply to over 7.3 million customers, principally in the cities of London and Oxford. Traditionally, for London, water treatment has consisted of abstraction (pumping water from the rivers Thames and Lee), theoretical storage for 30–80 days in deep reservoirs, two stage filtration ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Update on Mt Pleasant WTP Incorporating the MIEX ® DOC Process and How it Compares With a Plant Operating in Enhanced Coagulation Mode

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is a major factor impacting on water treatment processes. NOM is a precursor of disinfectant by-products (DBP), a food source for regrowth of micro-organisms and makes downstream processes such as membrane filtration and activated carbon less efficient. Reducing NOM in conventional treatment plants can be achieved by using enhanced coagulation, whereby additional ...


    By IXOM Watercare

  • BNSF skykomish

    Passive Pre-Treatment with ChitoVan Cartridges Followed by CESF with 1 % ChitoVan Cleanup of a former railway fuel and maintenance facility in Skykomish, WA is currently underway. Nearby environmentally sensitive waterways have increased the need for responsible management of contaminated waters. Two Chitosan-Enhanced Sand Filtration systems have been implemented by Clear Water Compliance ...


    By Dungeness Environmental

  • Understanding the factors influencing the removal of heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff

    In this research, an infiltration trench equipped with an extensive pretreatment and filter bed consisting of woodchip, sand and gravel was utilized as a low impact development technique to manage stormwater runoff from a highly impervious road with particular emphasis on heavy metal removal. Findings revealed that the major factors influencing the removal of heavy metals were the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • North Carolina wal mart

    Passive Pre-Treatment with ChitoVan Cartridges Followed by CESF with 1.5% ChitoVan Two Chitosan-Enhanced Sand Filtration systems where implemented during the construction of a Wal-Mart Superstore and Sam's Club near Raleigh, NC. The treatment train consisted of a series of ponds with conveyance channels that utilized ChitoVan Chitosan Lactate Cartridges for treatment prior to being filtered. ...


    By Dungeness Environmental

  • Biofilm formation and permeate quality improvement in Gravity Driven Membrane ultrafiltration

    The effects of biofilm development on ultrafiltration membranes with regard to permeate stability and permeation rates were investigated using Gravity Driven Membrane (GDM) filtration. The first part of the study aimed at evaluating the influence of the biofilm on permeate flux quality and quantity with regard to Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) degradation. In addition, two types of biological ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the water environment and their removal in a water treatment process

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are found in aquatic environments worldwide. The presence of these compounds in the water environment is still unclear, even though direct or indirect discharges of these compounds from industries to the aquatic environment are the potential routes. In this paper, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hodder WTW - Actiflo for Cryptosporidium removal

    United Utilities 83-week Programme 112,000 m3/day Max Flow The Client United Utilities are the 2nd largest water company in England / Wales. They are responsible for an area in the north west of the UK, which includes major cities such as Manchester and Liverpool. The Client's Needs ...


  • Loch Turret water treatment works

    Actiflo® high rate sand ballasted clarification & multiflo lamella sludge thickening plant The Loch Turret upgrade was the largest drinking water project for Scottish Water in the latest investment period. The scheme was taken over in 2010 and is delivers approx 85 million litres of drinking water per day The Client Scottish Water is the UK's fourth largest ...


  • Uptown shopping center

    ChitoVan Chitosan Lactate Cartridge Pretreatment and Sand Filtration Urban development and redevelopment present a host of challenges - not the least of which is managing site stormwater runoff. In a northern suburb of Vancouver Island’s beautiful city of Victoria, BC the stormwater challenge was met and bested through the application of both passive and active chitosan stormwater ...


    By Dungeness Environmental

  • Sutton Hall WTW - Actiflo for Crytpo and Mn removal

    United Utilities Maximum flow 127 000 m3/day The Client United Utilities are the 2nd largest water company in England and Wales, responsible for an area in the north west of the UK including major cities such as Manchester and Liverpool. The Client's Needs Sutton Hall is one of the largest treatment works ...


  • Water Reuse Terminology

    All water on Earth is used and reused, over and over, in an elegant water cycle. Water reuse occurs in various ways on a daily basis. It happens when a community’s treated wastewater is discharged into rivers or other water bodies. If you live in a community downstream of another, chances are you are reusing water from an upstream town. Scientifically proven advances in water technology ...


    By WateReuse

  • Profile of Ozone/Bromine Sanitation Systems for City of Tucson Municipal Pools

    Due to the inherent risks associated with the use of chlorine gas as a sanitizer for the City of Tucson’s twenty-six municipal swimming pool sites, I found myself in search of an alternative water sanitation method. The challenge was clear; find a system that would be safer to manage than gas chlorine, yet yield the same favorable sanitation and water quality results. Since all the sites ...

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