flammability analyzer Articles

  • Real-time O2 monitoring in VCM plants using the In-situ laser gas analyzer – Case Study

    Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) Vinyl Chloride Monomer is a colorless, flammable gas. It is of very great importance as feedstock in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), one of the world´s most versatile thermoplastics. Originally, acetylene has been used as feedstock for VCM production but was replaced stepwise by the inexpensive ethylene. Complete changeover to almost ...

  • Aluminum Recycling

    The Customer The Company is one of the largest producers of aluminum. They conduct business worldwide and serve the aerospace, automotive, building, construction, commercial transportation, consumer electronics, oil & gas, packaging and industrial products & services markets. Aluminum is infinitely recyclable and 75% of all aluminum ever produced is still in use today. ...

  • Coil Coating Case History

    The Customer The Company manufactures metal roofing and gutter systems for the commercial and residential housing industry. The Process Bare coils of recycled steel and aluminum are uncoiled from a roll. The metal is chemically cleaned, treated and rinsed to prepare the surface for optimum coating adhesion and corrosion protection. The coil then enters a ...

  • Use of process analytics in aromatics (BTX and Phenol) production plants – Case Study

    Aromatics are planar, cyclic compounds with conjugated double bonds, consisting of the elements carbon and hydrogen. Aromatics are important intermediates and used as starting materials for a wide range of products. Aromatics are derived from crude oil and, in small quantities, from coal. Process automation equipment including gas chromatographs and other process analyzers contribute essentially ...

  • Energy Savings Case History

    The Customer The Company is a worldwide supplier of thousands of innovative and reliable products to dozens of diverse markets—from automotive to healthcare to renewable energy to electronics. Products include tapes, adhesives, abrasives, films, reflective materials, filtration systems and an array of other products that keep homes clean, offices organized and buildings ...

  • Solar Panels

    The Customer The Company is a worldwide developer, manufacturer, and distributor of solar electricity panels. The Process The Company uses a multiple zone conventional printing dryer for thin-film deposition onto solar cells. A special foil substrate is passed through rollers that transfer a proprietary ink formulation and epoxy adhesive ...

  • Solvent choices for infrared testing of oil and grease in water

    Water is a very strong absorber in the mi d infrared (I R) regio n where o il is measured. We see the effect of infrared absorbance when a cold bucket of water left in the sun is quite warm by afternoon due to the absorption of infrared energy as heat. When measuring part per million (ppm) oil levels with mid IR, the water absorbs so much of the infrared energy that the signal becomes saturated ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Reliable explosion protection in an oil tanker vapor recycle plant – Case Study

    In-situ gas analyzer monitor oxygen in real-time Project The world-class transshipment and storage facility Kiire, Japan, contains 46 million barrels of crude oil in 57 storage tanks, an amount equal to Japan’s two week demand. Continuous loading and unloading of oil tankers generates odorous gases and additionally results in losses of volatile ...

  • Synergism of GUP and Boric Acid Characterized by Cone Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry

    Wood is treated with a new composite flame retardant, whose components guanyl urea phosphate (GUP) and boric acid (BA) impart flame retardance. The flame retarding behavior of these samples is measured by cone calorimeter. The thermal behavior of samples has been studied by differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and thermogravimetry (TG) in air. The activation energies for different stages of ...


    By SAGE Publications

  • Continuous measurement of Process oxygen for Claus sulfur recovery unit (sru) start-ups and shut-downs case study

    During start-up and shut-down, any time a sulfur recovery unit (SRU) transitions from ambient temperature through fuel gas warm up to the introduction of acid gas, measurement of 02 stoichiometry is critical. Historically, operators have manually taken samples using a portable electrochemical type Os analyzer. While giving more or less satisfactory results, the requirement for more stringent ...

  • Developing Technologies to Detect Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Gas

    Abstract Hydrogen sulfi de (H2S) gas can cause nausea, headaches, unconsciousness, and death. Industries struggle to detect this deadly substance before it harms workers or communities. Safety system manufacturers have developed detectors that sense the H2S quickly and accurately. This paper illustrates, in general terms, considerations in effective placement of H2S detectors: ...

  • New White Paper features Solvents for Oil and Grease in Water Measurements

    A White Paper entitled, “Solvent Choices for Infrared Testing of Oil and Grease in Water” was recently published by Wilks Enterprise, Inc.  Infrared (IR) analysis is widely used worldwide for determining the amount of oil and grease in water as it is a cost-effective measurement technique that can be easily done on-site or in a laboratory.  Since water is a strong absorber ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Advances in flashpoint testing: economic impact

    Flashpoint testing is one of the oldest methods of the ASTM D02 Committee on Petroleum Products and Lubricants, which was formed in 1904. The most prevalent standards are ASTM D56 (Tag Method), D92 (Cleveland Method), and D93 (Pensky-Martens Method). These classical techniques, commonly referred to as open-cup and closedcup methods, share a common principle: A test flame is lowered into the ...

  • Reducing the risk of dust explosion hazards

    In the wake of recent tragic and highly publicized dust explosions, companies are asking, 'Could that happen here?' and 'What can I do to prevent such an incident at my facility?' One approach is to manage dust explosion hazards as though they were subject to OSHA’s Process Safety Management (PSM) requirements (29 CFR 1910.119), even though dust hazards often are not covered under this ...


    By ABS Consulting

  • Electrofilter protection by fast monitoring of CO in flue gas – Case Study

    Electrostatic precipitators Many industrial operations produce exhaust gases that contain dust, fly ash (unburned constituents), fumes (including fine elemental particles such as cadmium, sulfur and lead) and mist (such as coal tar), which cause an unwanted impact to human health and the environment. One widely used method of removing such contaminants from a gas stream is to use an ...

  • Oil and gas industry process analytics in ethylene production plants – Case Study

    Ethylene is the largest volume industrially produced organic material and its majority is used in the production of polymers and derivatives. Between a variety of processes the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons in the presence of steam (steam cracker) is mostly used. Regardless of the process type, all plants require process analytical equipment to collect reliable and accurate process data for ...

  • Not All Hazards are the Same: Design considerations for matching flame and gas hazards to detector technologies

    Not all flame and gas hazards in facilities are the same, therefore the detection technology chosen should be specific to the type of hazard to be detected. How do users select technologies to see certain fires or detect certain gases? The intent of this paper is to give a broad introduction to the selection and use of flame and gas detector technologies. We will answer questions such as these: ...

  • Upgrading from Pellistor Gas Sensors to Infrared Technology

    In this article Andy Avenell, Crowcon’s Fixed Systems Product Manager, considers the shift towards infrared (IR) gas sensor technology in the oil and gas industry. Abstract Flammable gases and vapours can present considerable dangers in many industrial applications, none more so than the processes involved in extracting, transporting and processing oil and gas. Fast and reliable ...

  • Process analytics in vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants – Case Study

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), made from ethylene and chlorine by pyrolysis, is the feedstock for the production of the very common plastic material PVC. Modern VCM plants use integrated processes, combining endothermic and exothermic reactions in an almost energy balanced operation. Plants optimize the product quality, plant safety and cost efficiency by using advanced process control equipment ...

  • Selecting and Placing Gas Detectors for Maximum Application Protection

    Many industrial processes involve dangerous gases and vapors: flammable, toxic, or both. With the different sensing technologies available, and the wide range of industrial applications that exist, selecting the best sensor and locating them properly for the job at hand can be a challenge. To ensure a high level of safety, know the latest sensing technologies, which technology is best for the ...

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