flocculator Articles

  • Coagulation and flocculation in the Helsinki drinking water treatment plant

    The raw water for Finland’s capital Helsinki is pumped from Lake Päijänne, located approximately 120 km away, via a tunnel to two water treatment plants, where it is treated and purified. This secures sufficient drinking water of excellent quality for around one million people. In the drinking water treatment plant in Vanhakaupunki 18 HYPERCLASSIC® Evolution7 mixers and three ...

  • Evaluation of the flocculation and de-flocculation performance and mechanism of polymer flocculants

    Understanding the interaction mechanism between polymeric flocculants and solid particles in two oppositely charged solutions: bentonite and calcium fluoride, is of great practical and fundamental importance. In this work, inorganic flocculants based on aluminum(III) or iron(III); cationic, anionic and non-ionic organic flocculants were used. The solution pH, which highly influenced the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biodegradable flocculants: Power of `natto`

    Just by adding and stirring (1 agent, 1 process) 'PG alpha 21Ca' to polluted water, it separates supernatant water with better turbidity, BOD, and COD, and sediments in a short time. This high-molecular flocculent adsorbs strongly the exogenous incretion disturbance substance (Environmental hormone ), like dioxin. By using this high-molecular flocculent, it is possible to draw and collect ...


    By Poly Glu USA

  • Coagulation, flocculation and agglomeration

    Agglomeration Agglomeration refers to the formation of more or less firmly bound primary particles by collision processes between primary particles, primary particles and agglomerates, as well as pre-existing agglomerates. The agglomeration consists of a destabilization and a transport process. The destabilization is divided into coagulation and flocculation. In general, both ...

  • The feasibility of flocculation in a storage sedimentation basin

    ABSTRACTFor the Flemish situation, storage sedimentation basins are one of the best 'end-of-pipe' solutions to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows on the receiving waters. In some cases, when the spilled pollution load is too high, the settling efficiency of the basin has to be improved. Adding coagulants could be a reasonable alternative for building larger basins. To estimate the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater treatment

    Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment.  This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking.  Material for this article was largely taken from reference (1). Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. In potable water treatment, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cactus Opuntia as natural flocculant for urban wastewater treatment

    The cactus tree, species Opuntia ficus-indica, is a primary material of many products in various domains such as cosmetics, medicine and nutrition. In the present work, we assess its potential as a flocculant. We tried a technique which adopts three sequential treatments that used coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes under certain operating conditions. For this purpose, we ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Flocculation of a lactic acid fermentation broth by gelatin

    In the current study, flocculation of a lactic acid (LA) fermentation broth with three kinds of flocculants was performed in order to reduce membrane pollution during its subsequent electrodialysis. Gelatin was selected as the most suitable flocculant in comparison with others in terms of flocculation rate (FR), suspended solid (SS) removal rate, and filtration flux of the supernatant. Optimal ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Whitepaper: Chemical-physical Water Treatment, Filtration and Flocculation

    Introduction In water treatment plants chemical-physical processes play an essential part in the process chain. They are successfully employed in the pre- and post-treatment of waters of different origins, as well as of other process liquids. In this regard the removal of particles by filtration is a central step. Classical filtration processes are used for particles ranging from ...


    By EnviroChemie GmbH

  • Preparation and application of a new composite chitosan flocculant

    A new composite chitosan flocculant has been prepared, and its optimal dosage in the treatment of sewage established. It significantly improves the removal of chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and aluminium ions from water. Compared with the traditional flocculant polyaluminium chloride, the cost of the composite flocculant was lower and it produced less pollution.Keywords: chitosan, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The safe use of cationic flocculants with reverse osmosis membranes

    Abstract Flocculants are used in combination with coagulants to agglomerate suspended particles for removal by filtration. This technique is used extensively in all types of surface waters to reduce the silt density index (SDI) and minimise membrane fouling. Although organic cationic flocculants are particularly effective, their widespread use in membrane applications is limited ...

  • Suitability of cationic flocculants for RO membranes performance improvement

    Abstract As it has already been published and demonstrated, one of the main causes of membranes failures is related to a poor plant pre-treatment. Data from more than 600 autopsies demonstrated that both biofilm and colloidal matter are the most common components on RO (reverse osmosis) membranes fouling, therefore, main lack on membranes pre-treatment is related to disinfection and ...

  • A novel poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculant with outstanding flocculation performance

    Series of anionic flocculants with outstanding flocculation performance, poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculants (PAAD) were successfully prepared through aqueous solution copolymerization and applied to flocculate from oil-field fracturing waste-water. The structure of PAAD was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy , 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Experimental studies on hydrophobic flocculation of coal fines in aqueous solutions and flotation of flocculated coal

    Hydrophobic flocculation of fine bituminous coal particles in aqueous solutions under mechanical conditioning and without any surfactants has been experimentally studied through the measurements of aggregative efficiency, zeta potential and contact angle in this work. The results have shown that the hydrophobic coal fines strongly aggregated in a wide pH range (3.5?9.5), even though the particle ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Prediction of coagulation and flocculation processes using ANN models and fuzzy regression

    Coagulation and flocculation are two main processes used to integrate colloidal particles into larger particles and are two main stages of primary water treatment. Coagulation and flocculation processes are only needed when colloidal particles are a significant part of the total suspended solid fraction. Our objective was to predict turbidity of water after the coagulation and flocculation ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Influence of flocculation on sediment deposition process at the Three Gorges Reservoir

    By comparing the original particle gradation of sediment from the Three Gorges Reservoir with the single particle gradation, the differences in these two particle gradations showed that there is sediment flocculation in the Three Gorges Reservoir, which can accelerate the sediment deposition rate in the reservoir. In order to determine the influence of flocculation on the sediment settling ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effect of pH on the flocculation behaviors of kaolin using a pH-sensitive copolymer

    pH-sensitive copolymers have been widely introduced to achieve rapid dewatering and consolidation of solids in mining and oil sands processing wastes. But no more attention has been given to the flocculation efficiency of solid suspensions as a function of pH using pH-sensitive copolymer. In this study, a pH-sensitive copolymer was synthesized and employed to investigate the flocculation ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of activated starch as an alternative to polyacrylamide polymers for drinking water flocculation

    Polyacrylamide polymers (PAM) are one of the most common water treatment chemicals used in clarification processes. Concerns have been raised with regards to the aquatic and human toxicity of acrylamide monomer. Greener polymers, produced using potato starch, were investigated at lab-scale as a potential non-toxic alternative to the use of PAM within a ballasted flocculation process ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effects of recycling flocculation membrane filtration on drinking water treatment

    Recycling flocculation membrane filtration (RF-MF) and coagulation membrane filtration (C-MF) were investigated for removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from Luan river in this study. The effectiveness of recycling flocculation pretreatment on both NOM removal and membrane filtration were assessed under different concentrations of coagulant and reflux flocs. Under the conditions of coagulant ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Towards optimal design parameters for around-the-end hydraulic flocculators

    ABSTRACTHydraulic flocculators are principally characterized by their volume (which determines the time of flocculation) and the water level difference between inlet and outlet (which determines the average energy dissipation).Within these constraints, however, the designer has many degrees of freedom, such as the average water depth, the number and spacing of baffles, the length of the gap at ...


    By IWA Publishing

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