fouling Articles

  • Membrane fouling

    The Problem: Membrane water treatment is costly and complex due to the systems required to mitigate membrane fouling. Membranes have, therefore, been relegated to high value applications such as desalination and ultra-pure water needs. The systems used to mitigate fouling have a history of underperformance and high cost. EconoPure Solution: EconoPure has ...


    By EconoPure Water Systems, LLC

  • How an Ultrasonic Flow Meter Works

    An ultrasonic flow meter utilizes ultrasound to measure the velocity of a fluid and is used in a variety of fluid applications. Ultrasonic flowmeters are ideal for water and other liquids. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow meters achieve high accuracy at low and high flows, save time with no pipe cutting or process shutdown, and are not affected by external noise. Here’s how ultrasonic flow ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • TEP and biofilm fouling on membranes

    Summary Biological fouling on membranes is a major problem in desalination and water purification plants. Oceanographers and limnologists have found that most marine and fresh waters are full of microscopic Transparent Exopolymer Particles, otherwise known as TEP. In this article, aquatic microbiologist Tom Berman and Filtration Specialist Marina Holenberg (Amiad Filtration Systems, Amiad, ...

  • An open area to discuss porosity

    When discussing physical characteristics of filtration media and membranes, researchers often have questions regarding porosity. Sometimes confused with pore size, porosity is defined as the ratio of the void pore volume to the total volume of a membrane1, usually indicated as a percentage. Track-etched membranes have essentially ...


    By Sterlitech Corporation

  • Software warns of early membrane fouling

    A software system known as MASAR – Membrane Alarm System and Automated Reporter, is proving to be a valuable tool for monitoring and optimizing membrane – based water purification and desalination plants. It can detect the early development of membrane fouling/scaling in RO, NF, UF and MF systems by monitoring performance and measuring an early-warning parameter called the Fouling ...


    By MASAR Technologies, Inc.

  • Controlling Scale Deposition and Industrial Fouling

    It costs US industry billions of dollars a year to control and remove the limescale that builds up in industrial equipment such a heat exchangers, evaporative coolers, boilers, chillers and other water fed equipment. Oil wells, for example, face significant scaling problems from the highly mineralized water that are extracted with the oil. Limescale not only increases downtime, maintenance ...

  • Fouling with aerobic granule membrane bioreactor

    Aerobic granulation (AG) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) are two promising, novel environmental biotechnological processes that draw interest of researchers working in the area of biological wastewater treatment. Membrane fouling in the combined aerobic granular membrane bioreactor (AGMBR) process and the conventional MBR process was investigated in this work. The irreversible fouling on ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Death, Taxes . . . and RO Membrane Fouling

    Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis (RO) systems is as all pervasive and inevitable as the common cold. Avoidance is just as hit-or-miss: wash your hands, don't get your feet wet and hope for the best. The many unseen factors influencing whether a person becomes ill parallel the many variables that determine the onset and severity of fouling in a membrane system. Design, operation, and ...


  • Industrial cooling water fouling by Dreissenidae

    Together with the cooling water, a wide range of living organisms is entrained into cooling water systems, which can readily colonise the available surfaces in the system. Growth conditions in the cooling water system often are ideal for sessile organisms: the steady water flow assures abundance of nutrients and oxygen, while access for predators is limited. The consequence of this is that ...


  • Corrosion and fouling control in process equipment

    Effective chemical treatment programmes can help to prevent plant damage and financial losses arising from corrosion and fouling. Corrosion attack is an omnipresent threat in oil refineries and petrochemical plants. It may lead to loss of production, cost of maintenance and repairs, replacement cost for equipment, safety aspects and potential environmental impact. If corrosion is ...


    By Kurita

  • Real-Time Membrane Fouling Monitoring

    The Port Hueneme Water Agency (PHWA) has been operating a municipal drinking water treatment plant designed to be a Brackish Water Reclamation Demonstration Facility. The facility consists of 3 separate side-by-side full scale systems or trains, each representing a major membrane separation process: nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and electro dialysis reversal (EDR). Both the NF and RO ...


    By MASAR Technologies, Inc.

  • Nanofiltration for the removal of algal metabolites and the effects of fouling

    Nanofiltration (NF) has been shown to be an effective way of removing organic micropollutants from drinking water due to its size exclusion properties. A rapid bench scale membrane test unit was utilised to trial six NF membranes to remove the algal metabolites, microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin (GSM). Membrane fouling due to the algal metabolites was observed ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effect of enhanced coagulation by KMnO4 on the fouling of ultrafiltration membranes

    Pre-coagulation enhanced by KMnO4 before ultrafiltration (KCUF) was compared with normal pre-coagulation by alum (CUF) in the ultrafiltration of water from the Songhua River, China. The trans-membrane pressure (TMP) with KCUF was much lower than that when alum alone was used. With KCUF a slower increment of TMP occurred, even under conditions of high river water turbidity. The results also showed ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • CSM fouling resistant reverse osmosis membranes

    This paper particularly deals with new fouling resistant RO membranes which are made more hydrophilic and less changed or charged with the same charge as the foulants to reduce hydrophobic interaction and charge attraction or to increase charge repulsion, respectively. The fouling resistant membranes manufactured by Woongjin Chemical in Korea are coated with hydrophilic monomers followed by ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Desalination and water recovery: control of membrane fouling

    Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) technologies are widely used for the production of safe drinking water, and for the recovery of reusable water from various industrial effluent streams. The most commonly encountered phenomenon in these processes, especially in water recovery application, is membrane fouling, and control of membrane fouling is regarded as a ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    In this study, the details of proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating real municipal wastewater were investigated. Two separate pilot-scale MBRs were continuously operated under significantly different operating conditions; one MBR was a submerged type whereas the other was a side-stream type. The submerged and side-stream MBRs were operated for 20 and 10 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Impact of Cell Surface Characteristics on Membrane Fouling

    Initial deposition of S. cerevisiae particle to plate type membrane was conducted with direct observati on system(DOB). Solution chemistry was controlled by ionic strength variation(0mM ~ 50mM) with N aCl, MgCl2, CaCl2. Predictable tendency by DLVO theory was that increment of ionic strength make in teraction forces decrease and make it easier to be attached to membrane, finally. Although DLVO ...

  • Cleaning clay (aluminosilicates) from fouled membranes

    Abstract Within the lifetime of most reverse osmosis (RO) systems some fouling will adversely affect membrane performance. The major constituents of foulants found on the first position during six years of membrane autopsy at the Genesys Membrane laboratory are clay minerals chemically known as aluminosilicates. Clay is a naturally occurring material found in all RO feed waters ...

  • Analyzing the spatial and temporal characteristics of membrane fouling

    Fouling characteristics of crossflow flat-sheet membranes for two Nanofiltration (NF), one Ultrafiltration (UF), and one Microfiltration (MF) membranes were analyzed using 12.5 parts per million (mg/L) FeCl3 solution and 350 mg/L copper nanofluid. FeCl3 solution represents dissolved contaminant whereas copper nanofluid simulates particulate contaminant. The spatial and temporal fouling ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Neosens™ on-line Fouling monitoring for Cooling Towers

    A New Approach to Fouling Control Neosens offers innovative, cost effective sensor solutions for monitoring the presence of biofilm and scale in cooling towers, heat exchangers and other industrial process applications. Fouling in cooling systems is a worldwide, multi-billion dollar problem, reducing energy efficiency, increasing maintenance costs and creating health risks due to ...


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