free chlorine measurement Articles

  • Amperometric Free Chlorine Measurement without pH Compensation

    Accurate measurement and control of free chlorine in water is critical in many applications. Amperometric sensors are a popular alternative to colorimetric analyzers since the measurement is continuous and no reagents are required, however most sensors are extremely sensitive to pH fluctuations and have a limited pH range where they will function. Expensive pH measurement and control is one ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Chlorine Theory & Measurement

    Chlorine, dissolved in liquid is one of the most effective and economical semi-killers for the treatment of water to make it potable or safe to drink. Chlorine's powerful disinfectant qualities come from its ability to bond with and destroy the outer surfaces of bacteria and viruses. Drinking water chlorination is one of the most widely used methods to safeguard chinking water supplies. In ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • What’s the difference between free and total chlorine?

    The element Chlorine exists as a gas Cl2, when this is mixed with water it forms hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which is the disinfecting agent; Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCl This HOCl can partly disassociate to form the hypochlorite ion ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Accuracy, precision, usability, and cost of free chlorine residual testing methods

    Chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant worldwide, partially because residual protection is maintained after treatment. This residual is measured using colorimetric test kits varying in accuracy, precision, training required, and cost. Seven commercially available colorimeters, color wheel and test tube comparator kits, pool test kits, and test strips were evaluated for use in low-resource ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorine mystery solved

    Following the installation of in-pipe drinking water quality monitoring sondes, distribution engineers discovered an occasional significant disparity between the Intellisondes’ data and results from grab samples tested by a photometer tablet (DPD) method. For most of the time, there was close agreement between the two methods, but periodically, the photometer results varied wildly, whilst ...


    By Intellitect Water Ltd

  • Inactivation of Cryptosporidium Parvum oocysts and Clostridium Perfringens spores by a mixed-oxidant disinfectant and by free Chlorine

    Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Clostridium perfringens spores are very resistant to chlorine and other drinking-water disinfectants. Clostridium perfringens spores have been suggested as a surrogate indicator of disinfectant activity against Cryptosporidium parvum and other hardy pathogens in water. In this study, an alternative disinfection system consisting of an electrochemically produced ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • Chlorinated solvents: methylene chloride and TCE

    Introduction This paper presents the results of a scaled and phased approach to source remediation of high concentrations of recalcitrant chlorinated solvent compounds via soil vapor extraction (SVE) and vapor treatment at a Site in Southern California. Phase I began with refrigerated condensation (C3) in order to achieve high mass removal rates to reduce lifecycle costs and time ...

  • Chlorine Dioxide gas detection: A comprehensive guide

    Introduction Some years agoago, the bleaching process in the paper industry was changed from using Chlorine (Cl2) as bleaching agent to Chlorine dioxide (ClO2). This was a challenge forThis posed a major challenge to industrial hygienists, as there were no sensors or detectors available that were specific to Chlorine dioxide: There was no sensor technology for gas detectors available that ...

  • Impact of incomplete mixing in the prediction of chlorine residuals in municipal water distribution systems

    This paper investigates the mixing phenomena in pipe junctions in water distribution systems. Network simulation models frequently assume that mixing at pipe junctions is complete and instantaneous. In the present study, a series of experiments using tee and cross junctions with varying inflows and free chlorine concentrations were carried out in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Institute of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Using ATP measurements to optimize and validate flushing activities

    A Louisiana, USA municipality performed a survey of their potable water distribution system in September 2013. A total of 47 sample taps were tested for Free Chlorinie, Total Chlorine, and Cellular ATP using LuminUltra's Quench-Gone Aqueous (QGA) test kit.  Summary of Findings  The results of the initial survey showed that more than half of the sample points carried less ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • Can I measure monochloramine on a palintest photometer?

    Normally, DPD 1 gives free chlorine Addition of DPD 3 (excess KI) gives free and combined chlorine (chloramine) Instead of DPD 3, DPD 2 is used (which has a trace of KI).  This only reacts with monochloramine.  So subtracting the DPD 1 result gives the level of monochloramine.  DPD 2 part code is 1177203 priced the ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Chemical-Free Treatment of Recirculating Water Using Pulsed-Power

    Untitled Document Regulatory pressures and economic considerations require industry to become cleaner, more efficient, and more environmentally benign. Such operating principles advance not only ...


    By Dolphin WaterCare

  • Evaluation of Ecological Risks Associated with the use of Chlorine Dioxide for the Bleaching of Pulp: Scientific Progress Since 1993

    1.1 Scope and Objectives A small number of viable options are presently available for the bleaching of wood pulp (delignification and brightening) during the manufacture of pulp and paper. The use of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in the bleaching process has largely superceded the earlier use of Cl2, or elemental chlorine, in the majority of North American pulp mills: It was discovered over a decade ...

  • A new approach for evaluating the infectivity of noncultivatable enteric viruses without cell culture

    This study developed a novel approach for evaluating the infectivity of enteric viruses without cell culture. Cumulative carbonyl groups on the viral capsid protein were labeled using biotin hydrazide, and the biotinylated virions were separated using a spin column filled with avidin-immobilized gel. Rotavirus was treated with free chlorine at an initial concentration of 0.3 mg/L for 3 min, and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Mixed Oxidants show disinfection benefits for municipalities

    “The most significant advantage over gas chlorination or hypochlorination is an ability to maintain chlorine residuals further along the water distribution system, due to better biofilm removal. Other noted advantages of mixed oxidants are ease of operation with self-cleaning electrolytic cell on-site generators, fewer safety issues in comparison to gas chlorination, and lower costs ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • Occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in a random sample of drinking water distribution systems in the USA

    Aeromonads are aquatic bacteria found in drinking water supplies worldwide. Some species, such as Aeromonas hydrophila, can cause disease in humans. For this survey, 293 United States public water systems were selected using random sampling, stratified by water source and system type. Water samples were collected during one year from three sites (six samples per site) in each system. Temperature, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Autocalibration of dynamic bacterial growth model for water distribution system using GA

    The presence of residual chlorine and organic matter govern the bacterial regrowth within a water distribution system. The bacterial growth model is essential to predict the spatial and temporal variation of all these substances throughout the system. The parameters governing the bacterial growth and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) utilization are difficult to determine by ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • San Jose Water Company Solves Chloramine Residual Problem with the Process Solutions, Inc. Monoclor Chloramine Management System

    Located on the southern edge of California’s ever-expanding Silicon Valley, the San Jose Water Company treats and distributes water to over 1 million people. Founded in 1866, the investor-owned public utility has built a reputation for being focused on customer service and has been an early adopter of new treatment Technologies. Like many water utilities, San Jose Water has had to adapt to ...

  • Chloramines

    OVERVIEW When chlorine is added to a water supply containing certain organics, the formation of halogenated organics occurs. Called 'trihalogenated methanes' (THM's) these reaction products are suspected carcinogens and maximum allowable limits in municipal supplies are imposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). To reduce the potential for the formation of THM's, many U.S. ...

  • Pulp and Paper Mills Industry - Pollution Prevention Guidelines

    Introduction Pollution Prevention Guidelines to provide technical advice and guidance to staff and consultants involved in pollution-related projects. The guidelines represent state-of-the-art thinking on how to reduce pollution emissions from the production process. In many cases, the guidelines provide numerical targets for reducing pollution, as well as maximum ...


    By The World Bank

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