free chlorine reduction Articles

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...

  • The effect of chlorine and combined chlorine/UV treatment on coliphages in drinking water disinfection

    Chlorine disinfection is a globally used method to ensure the safety of drinking water. However, it has not always been successful against viruses and, therefore, it is important to find new methods to disinfect water. Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. These coliphages and MS2 were treated with different dosages of chlorine in drinking water, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Drinking water: the problem of chlorinous odours

    Chlorinous off-flavours in drinking water are a leading cause of complaints to Australian water utilities and other utilities worldwide. The occurrence and causes of chlorinous odours in drinking water were investigated with the use of an odour panel, trained using a modified flavour profile analysis technique. A new system for classifying water types according to the causes of chlorinous odours ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorine Dioxide gas detection: A comprehensive guide

    Introduction Some years agoago, the bleaching process in the paper industry was changed from using Chlorine (Cl2) as bleaching agent to Chlorine dioxide (ClO2). This was a challenge forThis posed a major challenge to industrial hygienists, as there were no sensors or detectors available that were specific to Chlorine dioxide: There was no sensor technology for gas detectors available that ...

  • Free radical destruction of haloacetamides in aqueous solution

    Haloacetamides are disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed through chlorine/chloramine disinfection processes in drinking waters and have been recently highlighted in the US national Reconnaissance Survey. These species occur at low concentrations, but have been determined to have high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity and therefore may represent a human health hazard. Advanced oxidation/reduction ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effect of water hardness and pipe material on enhanced disinfection with UV light and chlorine

    Limited studies have been conducted to evaluate synergistic benefits between disinfectants, although promise has been shown between ultraviolet (UV) light and chlorine-based disinfectants. This research aimed to determine drinking water quality factors that affect potential for enhanced removal of heterotrophic bacteria due to synergy between UV light and free chlorine. An additional goal was to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorine inactivation of hepatitis E virus and human adenovirus 2 in water

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transmitted via the fecal–oral route and has been recognized as a common source of large waterborne outbreaks involving contaminated water in developing countries. Thus, there is the need to produce experimental data on the disinfection kinetics of HEV by chlorine in water samples with diverse levels of fecal contamination. Here, the inactivation of HEV and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The effect of electrolysis and oxidation–reduction potential on microbial survival, growth, and disinfection

    A study of the effects of changes in oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) in synthetic waters on bacterial growth is presented. In this study, ORP is altered by electrolysis, as opposed to the traditional use of oxidising chemicals. As synthetic halide-free water was used no oxidised halide species such as chlorine or bromine were formed. Bacterial survival was directly correlated with changes in ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Evaluation of Ecological Risks Associated with the use of Chlorine Dioxide for the Bleaching of Pulp: Scientific Progress Since 1993

    1.1 Scope and Objectives A small number of viable options are presently available for the bleaching of wood pulp (delignification and brightening) during the manufacture of pulp and paper. The use of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in the bleaching process has largely superceded the earlier use of Cl2, or elemental chlorine, in the majority of North American pulp mills: It was discovered over a decade ...

  • Purpose: To determine the ability of the Hanovia UVP 61 water disinfection system to

    Disinfection of public swimming pools and water amenities is essential to maintain safe and attractive bathing conditions. The challenge today is to provide water conditions free of irritants and after effects and smell. Customers expect clear, odour free, high quality water. Chlorine disinfection is the most common means of providing such protection. However, chlorine chemistry is complex and ...

  • A new approach for evaluating the infectivity of noncultivatable enteric viruses without cell culture

    This study developed a novel approach for evaluating the infectivity of enteric viruses without cell culture. Cumulative carbonyl groups on the viral capsid protein were labeled using biotin hydrazide, and the biotinylated virions were separated using a spin column filled with avidin-immobilized gel. Rotavirus was treated with free chlorine at an initial concentration of 0.3 mg/L for 3 min, and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Mixed-oxidant application in cooling tower maintenance

    Tests using the MIOX-generated mixed-oxidant solution instead of oxidizing biocides (chlorine or bromine) for cooling tower maintenance, and eliminating all other biocides, in first an established cooling tower and subsequently in two new cooling towers found: (1) aerobic bacteria counts consistently less than 1000/mL in the cooling water (no colonies on the standard Easicult TTC1 dip slide ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • The Use Of UV For Dechlorination

    For many years chemical disinfection techniques have been used to provide microbiologically pure water for industrial and domestic use. Free chlorine, typically introduced by municipal water treatment plants in gaseous form, has been employed for many decades as a primary oxidising agent for the control of microbiological growth. Free chlorine can also be introduced through the injection of ...

  • Online Process Analyzer Installed at F.J. Horgan WTP to Monitor Chloramination

    Construction was completed on the City of Toronto's F.J. Hor-gan Water Treatment Plant in 1979, more than 60 years after chloramine had first been used to disinfect drinking water in an Ottawa plant. By then there was little debate about the benefits of chloramination and it was incorporated into the new plant's design as part of the disinfection process. Chloramine is more stable than free ...

  • Simultaneous precipitation of phosphorus in a kraft pulp mill wastewater treatment plant

    Simultaneous precipitation (SP) using iron sulfates in the secondary treatment of elemental chlorine-free (ECF) kraft pulp mill wastewater was studied. In short-term pilot plant studies phosphorus reduction was improved from 58% up to 81% by adding 10 mgFe/L ferrous sulfate in the activated sludge (AS) process. The phosphorus reduction in full-scale experiment was about 80% ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • UV technology - unique in water disinfection

    Due to its undisputable Success &  Efficiency in destroying Cryptosporidium and Combined Chlorine, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommend installing UV Systems It has taken many years of testing to convince the pool market that the most reliable and best available option for treating and disinfecting water is through using Ultraviolet (UV) technology. UV systems ...


    By ESCO International

  • Performance of a conventional surface water plant using mixed-oxidants for microflocculation and final disinfection

    The City of Santa Fe, NM utilizes both surface water and well water to achieve a system-wide peak production of 22 million gallons per day (MGD). In March 1998, the city incorporated MIOX mixedoxidant disinfection technology for pre-treatment and final disinfection of the water treated in an 8 MGD surface water plant. Concurrently, a filter backwash recycling system was installed as well as ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • Removing Chloramines from Drinking Water Supplies

    Historically, most public water supplies have been treated with chlorine to satisfy the standards set by the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974. Since being established, there is reason to believe that the standards may be too lenient on the allowable contaminant levels in our drinking water. For instance, chlorine and other disinfectants react with organic matter creating ...


    By General Carbon Corp.

  • Case study - Ainslie Park Leisure Centre

    5 years on: atg UV systems stand the test of time Ainslie Park Leisure Centre atg UV Technology, market leaders in the design and manufacture of Ultraviolet technology systems prides itself on its level of workmanship and quality. Five years ago atg UV Technology, replaced the existing ozone system at Ainslie Park Leisure Centre in Edinburgh with an atg UV ...


    By atg UV Technology

  • atg UV stand the test of time

    Client: Ainslie Park Leisure Centre   Location: Edinburgh, Scottland Description: Swimming Pool Disinfection atg UV Technology, market leaders in the design and manufacture of Ultraviolet technology systems prides itself on its level of workmanship and quality. Five years ago atg UV Technology, replaced the existing ozone system at ...


    By atg UV Technology

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