fuel cell stack Articles

  • Development of a generic fuel cell model: application to a fuel cell vehicle simulation

    In this paper, a novel approach to fuel cell modelling is proposed. The model is obtained from manufacturer datasheets and is able to represent the behaviour of any hydrogen fuel cells. The simulation results are as expected with an error in the range of ±1%, provided a controlled stack internal humidity. The procedure to extract data from fuel cells datasheet is described along with the method ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Energy capture and nutrients removal enhancement through a stacked constructed wetland incorporated with microbial fuel cell

    To improve the sustainability of constructed wetlands (CWs), a novel tiered wetland system integrated with a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed in this study. Compared to the single stage CW, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was improved from 83.2% to 88.7%. More significantly, this tiered system significantly enhanced total nitrogen removal efficiency (an increase from ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Are fuel cells the future for stationary power?

    Fuel cells are one solution for generating stationary power for industry and grid balancing, but they are currently not competitive with conventional generation. Marc Height has a look at the market and at new, lower-cost technology coming to the fore that could change the playing field. Input hydrogen and oxygen into a very particular box and, like magic, electricity is produced, alongside heat ...


    By Energy Institute (EI)

  • Performance of air-cathode stacked microbial fuel cells systems for wastewater treatment and electricity production

    Two different air-cathode stacked microbial fuel cell (MFC) configurations were evaluated under continuous flow during the treatment of municipal wastewater and electricity production at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3, 1, and 0.5 d. Stacked MFC 1 was formed by 20 individual air-cathode MFC units. The second stacked MFC (stacked MFC 2) consisted of 40 air-cathode MFC units placed in a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Fuel Cell Voltage Monitoring Considerations

    Knowing what’s happening inside a fuel cell is a critical function, especially as fuel cells are continuing to be developed. One important aspect of this is to measure the voltageof each cell in a stack. Although this may sound trivial, it can be more complex and more expensive than it may at first appear due to high voltages, high channel counts,communication types, etc. There ...


    By Fuel Cells Etc

  • Characterisation of two-phase flow and its impact on the performance of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane fuel cell stack

    Water management is one of the most critical issues for high-performance Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells. A flow network model was developed to study the possibility of two-phase flow inception along the gas flow channels in the cathode side of a PEM fuel cell stack. The conventional Darcy-Weisbach equation and homogeneous flow model are used to estimate the pressure distributions ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Towards an European Fuel Cell Strategy

     Head of Unit 'Energy Consumption Technology' At the onset of the Fourth Framework Programme for Community research and technological development including demonstration, a ten year fuel cell strategy for Europe was published in 1995 jointly by DG XII (Directorate General for Science, Research and Development) and DG XVII (Directorate General for Energy). The interest of the European ...

  • Exergoeconomic based multi–objective optimisation of a solid oxide fuel cell system

    In this study, the multi–objective optimisation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system by defining the objective functions to maximise the power output, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency, and minimise the cost under various constraints is conducted. In this regard, energy, exergy and exergoeconomic analyses are performed. Some specific cases are considered and studied parametrically by ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Membrane fouling reduction in a cost-effective integrated system of microbial fuel cell and membrane bioreactor

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and membrane bioreactors (MBR) are promising technologies for wastewater treatment. However, both of them have some drawbacks and application limitations. A cost-effective hybrid system (EMBR) integrating MFC with MBR was evaluated in terms of treatment performance and membrane fouling. In this paper, two electric field directions with a membrane module in the middle ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Fuel cell–based distributed generation system with power flow and power quality control

    This paper presents the modelling and control of fuel cell–based distributed generation system with embedded active filter functioning. It includes the modelling of proton electrolyte membrane fuel cell and the power conditioning unit interfacing the fuel cell to the utility grid with proper power flow control. The output of the fuel cell stack is given to the DC–DC boost converter ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Gas cell selection for analysis of electronic gases

    APIMS and FTIR remain the preferred analytical tools for monitoring impurities in the electronic  specialty gases used by the semiconductor industry, although other tools such as CRDS are currently finding application in selected cases. FTIR spectroscopy offers the advantage of the simultaneous measurement of all gaseous species that exhibit dipole moment changes during vibrations at ...


    By CIC Photonics, Inc.

  • Application of power electronics with the US DOE distributed generation programme

    Power electronics play an important role in achieving affordable, highly fuel-efficient fuel cell power generation plants and will enable the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cells programme to achieve higher national goals: environmental, economic and energy security. The initial focus on power electronics has been to understand the interactions between the SOFC stack, the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • What is the Purpose of a Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL)?

    The Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) plays several critical roles in a typical fuel cell application and is often integrated as part of the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). Typical applications that use GDLs consist of Polymer Electrolyte  ...


    By Fuel Cells Etc

  • Solar`s Time to Rise and Shine.

    Photovoltaic efficiency records are being shattered, thanks to recent advances in materials science. Last month, a researcher at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo., loaded a postage stamp–sized solar cell onto a tray and placed it under a high-intensity pulse solar simulator. The simulator flashed a 2.5 millisecond pulse of light, and 19 mirrors reflected the ...


    By Ensia

  • Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Activation Procedures

    Why is an activation procedure or break-in necessary for a membrane electrode assembly (MEA)?  A large reason for performing an activation procedure or break-in is to properly humidify the membrane portion of the MEA that was dried out during the hot press stage of the membrane electrode ...


    By Fuel Cells Etc

  • Coming In Out of the Cold: Hybrids Put to the Test

    Untitled Document Point Roberts, WA, Delta B.C.- May 25, 2004 With gas prices reaching an all time high and not much promise of an end in sight, hybrid technology is falling under the lens of some careful ...


    By Investorideas.com

  • In-situ continuous emissions monitoring & regulatory compliance

    As environmental scrutiny has risen and regulation has tightened in recent years, the importance of having accurate information on the environmental performance of your power plant has increased. After all, if you want to manage something, you need to be able to measure it. The analogy is obvious; you wouldn't start a diet without first investing in a set of scales. So it is with Continuous ...

  • How Much Hydrogen (or Oxygen) Will my Electrolyzer Make?

    There are a lot of design considerations that go into an electrolyzer that will dictate what pressure they can operate at, their efficiency, safety, etc.  Today I will let you worry about all the mechanical design and talk a bit about the principles behind the electrolyzer and what this means to you (the designer).  Everything below applies primarily to PEM water electrolysis, but much ...


    By Fuel Cells Etc

  • What Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) do I use for a Hydrogen Generator (Electrolyzer)?

    We've spoken already about Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) selection for a Fuel Cell; today we will cover some GDL considerations for Electrolyzers. The Hydrogen side (Cathode) of an Electrolyzer (EZ) can be almost any gas diffusion layer GDL (or even no GDL) that you would like and that fits your ...


    By Fuel Cells Etc

  • Case study - Biogas desulfurization and siloxanes abatement

    MCFC project by CETAGUA (Mataró – Spain) Reducing the carbon footprint of our society is imperative. This can be achieved by capturing and confining anthropogenic CO2 emissions as well as by replacing fossil-based fuels with renewable or waste-derived fuels. MCFCs (Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells) are unique in being able to do both these things. Thanks to their operating ...


    By Bioconservacion SA

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