geological sampling Articles

  • ITRC position paper for passive diffusion sampling, 2002

    This document is intended to facilitate the use of polyethylene diffusion bag (PDB) samplers for long-term monitoring (LTM). The guidelines presented in Sections 2 and 3 relate to appropriate implementation, data interpretation, and regulatory issues of concern. Although diffusion samplers can be useful for many different activities and have membranes composed of various materials, this ...


    By EON Products Inc.

  • ITRC technical regulatory guidelines for passive diffusion sampling, 2004

    Polyethylene diffusion bag (PDB) samplers are low-density polyethylene bags containing deionized water, used to collect water samples in groundwater wells for laboratory analyses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). PDB samplers are passive devices, relying on the movement of groundwater from the aquifer or water-bearing zone through the screen or open interval of a well. VOCs in groundwater ...


    By EON Products Inc.

  • Low-Flow (Minimal Drawdown) Ground-Water Sampling Procedures

    Untitled Document Background The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a group of ground-water ...


    By Solinst Canada Ltd.

  • MSITU Raman spectroscopy of cave minerals: an analytical tool compatible with the conservation of subterranean heritage

    Introduction: Up to 380 different minerals have been described in caves over the past century [1]. The presence of particular mineral phases has been used as indicators of specific paleoenvironmental conditions occurred in caves [2, 3]. On the other hand, processes involved in the genesis of some cave minerals have been proposed as potential analogs of minerogenetic mechanisms occurred during the ...


    By B&W Tek

  • Fluoride contamination mapping of groundwater in Northern India integrated with geochemical indicators and GIS

    There are many incidents of increasing fluoride concentrations observed in India's groundwater. In the present study, the fluoride content was chemically analysed and integrated with geochemical model WATEQ4F sampled from Allahabad district, Northern India, with other water quality parameters. Geospatial technique was employed to depict the spatial distribution of fluoride concentrations, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Natural background levels for chemicals in Icelandic aquifers

    Information about natural background levels (NBLs) of chemicals in source waters allows water utilities to identify trends in drinking water contamination. We estimate NBLs for chemicals in source waters for Icelandic water utilities at both national levels with all data pooled, and according to geological regime. NBLs were derived by collecting samples from 79 aquifers considered largely ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Toxic metal ions in water and their prevalence in Uttarakhand, India

    Developmental activities, geological reasons and mixing of industrial wastes are responsible for the deteriorating quality of surface and ground water in the Himalayan state of Uttarakhand. The drinking water sources of 13 districts of Uttarakhand have been assessed for the presence of four toxic metal ions (arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead). The health aspects of the four metal ions have ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Groundwater arsenic in Chimaltenango, Guatemala

    In the Municipality of Chimaltenango, Guatemala, we sampled groundwater for total inorganic arsenic. In total, 42 samples were collected from 27 (43.5%) of the 62 wells in the municipality, with sites chosen to achieve spatial representation throughout the municipality. Samples were collected from household faucets used for drinking water, and sent to the USA for analysis. The only site ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Case Study - Construction Aggregate: Sand

    Geologic Mapping of Sand Unit Thickness Pyramid was contracted to perform an electrical resistivity survey across 230 acres of undeveloped land in North Carolina. The purpose of the survey was to quantify the lateral extents and approximate depth/thicknesses of sandy soils near the ground surface. The client was interested in the potential of the site to be utilized as a sand mine, and ...


    By Advanced Geosciences, Inc.

  • Ultra-trace arsenic speciation at Columbia Analytical

    Ultra-trace speciation of arsenic and other metals is performed using a variety of techniques tailored to the specific combination of species, matrix, and detection limits required. Currently, two analytical systems are applied: Ion Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) and Hydride Generation-Cryogenic Gas Chromatography-Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ...


  • Optimal solute transport in heterogeneous aquifer: coupled inverse modelling

    Characterisation of transmissivity heterogeneity is critical for groundwater flow and solute transport. The heterogeneity of transmissivity is studied through variogram-based techniques. Conventionally, the parameters in variogram are obtained by fitting measurements to a theoretical variogram. However, conditioning to the sampled geological variables neglects the effects of observed ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Recovering coal bed methane from deep unmineable coal seams and carbon sequestration

    Published data from nearly 2,000 coal samples comprising 250 coal beds from 17 states, representing many of the coal producing horizons in the USA, shows moderate correlation (0.7) between depth and methane content for high volatile coal ranks. Low-volatile rank coals average the highest methane content, 12.74 m?/ton (450 ft?/ton), subbituminous rank coals the lowest, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Installing Continuous Multi-Chamber Tubing Using Sonic Drilling

    As a geologist, core is the first thing that comes to mind when talking about sonic drilling— continuous, near complete core recovery through almost any lithology. Sand to silt transitions can be logged on a centimeter scale if desired. Geologic contacts can be mapped with accuracy of less than one foot. In an environmental ground water assessment, it seems an awful shame to collect (and pay for) ...


    By Solinst Canada Ltd.

  • Extremely halophilic archaea and the issue of long-term microbial survival

    Halophilic archaebacteria (haloarchaea) thrive in environments with salt concentrations approaching saturation, such as natural brines, the Dead Sea, alkaline salt lakes and marine solar salterns; they have also been isolated from rock salt of great geological age (195–250 million years). An overview of their taxonomy, including novel isolates from rock salt, is presented here; in addition, ...


    By Springer

  • Assessment of raw materials for cement industry in Sohag area, upper Egypt

    In the last few years, cement industry become a major player in materials recycling, although it is environmental polluted industry and a great consumer of limestone and clay. Cement manufacturing depends greatly upon chemical and physical characteristics of raw materials, its quality and quantity, simplicity of its extraction and its costs. Sohag Governorate is surrounded by the Eocene ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Observation of isotopes in the water cycle—the Swiss National Network (NISOT)

    The Swiss National Network for the Observation of Isotopes in the Water Cycle (NISOT) includes eleven precipitation, seven surface water (river) and three groundwater stations, where tritium, deuterium and oxygen-18 are monthly measured in composite samples. The network provides a good overview of the characteristic isotope signatures in recharge waters in Switzerland and of the relations between ...


    By Springer

  • Volatile organic compounds in the nation’s ground water and drinking-water supply wells

    ABSTRACT Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced in large volumes and are associated with a myriad of products, such as plastics, adhesives, paints, gasoline, fumigants, refrigerants, and drycleaning fluids. Widespread and long-term use of VOCs and their ability to persist and migrate in ground water raise questions about possible adverse effects on the environment, including ...

  • The impact of an open waste disposal site on soil and groundwater pollution

    A study has been carried out of a waste disposal site, located in the valley of a small creek, 3 km south of Canakkale city centre. The surface area of the site was around 101000 square metres, and the total amount of waste deposited at the site since 1990 was approximately 1001000 tons. The major risks of the dump are its closeness to the university campus area to the south, the airport to the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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