geomembrane testing Articles

  • Axisymmetric Tension Testing of Geomembranes

    The newly developed axisymmetric tension test is useful in evaluating the performance of geomembranes subjected to out-of-plane stress conditions such as those that can develop due to localized subsidence under waste-containment cover and liner systems. In this paper, the equations necessary to describe the geomembrane stresses and strains during testing are derived, and equations used to ...


    By ASTM International

  • Strain Measurement in HDPE Geomembrane Tensile Tests

    According to ASTM D 638, the tensile strain in an HDPE geomembrane dumbbell specimen subjected to a tensile test should be evaluated using an extensometer that records the elongation of a defined length of the central portion of the specimen. However, the current practice in the United States for HDPE geomembrane quality control and conformance testing consists of following the 1991 NSF standard ...


    By ASTM International

  • The Lighter Side of Geomembranes

    Geomembrane installations often cover substantial areas. Landfill cells pose enormous footprints. Oil and gas pits, industrial processing ponds, and wastewater containment ponds are large installations too, and each year they tend to be built a little larger. The scaling up of these facilities is not just a matter of achieving better operational economics for the ...


    By Nilex

  • Enhanced Geomembrane CQA through proper application of geomembrane leak location surveys

    Abstract Historically, geomembrane construction quality assurance (CQA) has focused on destructive testing of welded seams to verify seam strength and integrity. Paradoxically, seams are not subject to significant stress and practically never fail in service, while holes and construction damage in the geomembrane are a much more widespread problem. The historical approach fails to evaluate ...

  • Time-Temperature Superposition in Mechanical Durability Testing of Polyethylene Geomembranes

    The mechanical durability of polyethylene geomembranes is considered in this technical note. Polyethylene plastic pipe research has shown that there are universal factors for shifting high-temperature failure (short time) data to low temperatures (long time). Data presented here indicate that these same shift factors may also apply to geomembranes. Crack growth rate studies are proposed as a ...


    By ASTM International

  • Size Effects for Multi-Axial Tension Testing of HDPE and PVC Geomembranes

    Geosynthetics may be subjected to multi-axial stress states from plane strain loading, such as dragdown along lined slopes and from out-of-plane loading conditions imposed by localized subsidence beneath waste containment cover and liner systems. The multiaxial tension test is useful in evaluating the performance of geosynthetics subjected to multi-axial stress states. However, widespread ...


    By ASTM International

  • Notched Constant Tensile Load (NCTL) Test for High-Density Polyethylene Geomembranes

    A modification of an old test method, the notched constant tensile load (NCTL) test, is reintroduced to evaluate the stress-cracking performance of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes. In this modified test, notched dumbbell-shaped specimens are subjected to a range of constant tensile loads in a 10% Igepal (CO-630) solution at 50°C. The method has been proposed to ASTM and is being ...


    By ASTM International

  • Costs and Benefits of Geomembrane Liner Installation CQA

    ABSTRACT Because the cost of third-party construction quality assurance (CQA) of geomembrane liner installations is typically comparable to the cost of the geomembrane liner, CQA must be optimized to obtain the most benefit for the owner, rate payers, and environment. A regulation-based CQA protocol usually includes testing the material, observing the quality control (QC) program of the ...

  • Locating Geomembrane Liner Leaks under Waste in a Landfill

    Abstract An Electrical Leak Imaging and Monitoring (ELIM SM) survey was used to locate leaks under 2.5 meters of stabilized waste in an active geomembrane-Iined landfill. The landfill is lined with two 2-mm thick HDPE geomembranes that are separated by a geonet drainage layer. The primary liner is covered with 600 mm of drainage sand and 2.5 meters of stabilized waste for a total cover ...

  • Performance-Based Specification Of Electrical Leak Location Surveys For Geomembrane Liners

    ABSTRACT Electrical leak location surveys can be a crucial part of the final quality control of geomembrane liner installations. The method has been offered as a commercial service since 1985 and is the only practical test method that can find holes in the liner after protective soil cover is put on the liner. During the past fourteen years the test method has been used on a wide variety of ...

  • Detection and Location of Leaks in Geomembrane Liners Using an Electrical Method: Case Histories

    ABSTRACT A field-proven electrical technique, developed at Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, is commercially available to detect and locate leaks in geomembrane liners. The electrical technique is used to inspect 100% of the geomembrane material that is covered by a conducting liquid. A voltage applied across the liner produces a uniform electrical potential distribution in ...

  • Locating Leaks in Geomembrane Liners of Landfills Covered With a Protective Soil

    ABSTRACT The electrical leak location method was used to locate leaks in the geomembrane liners of single-lined and double-lined landfills covered with a protective soil cover. The landfills ranged in size from 0.40 hectare (one-acre) to 3.2 hectares (eight-acre). Water in the leak detection system under the primary liner indicated the primary liners were leaking. The principal of ...

  • Experience with GCLs used as a conductive layer in geomembrane leak-location surveys

    Engineers, installers, regulators, and owners are starting to rely on geomembrane leak-location surveys as part of the construction quality assurance for landfills. The various methods are described in ASTM Standard D 6747.' Standard procedures for conducting leak-location surveys of geomembranes covered with earth materials are described in ASTM Standard D 7007.2 Figure 1 shows the ...

  • Evaluation of geomembrane, amended soil and composite liner system as lining materials for chromium decontamination in landfill site

    A comprehensive laboratory and field–scale study was performed to explore the efficacies of geomembrane, amended soil liner material and composite liner packs for using as containment liner systems for attenuating chromium transport emanating from a chrome laden solid waste disposal site. Soil samples were collected from the site and were admixed with different amended materials, such as rice ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Cutting holes for testing vs. testing for holes

    When it comes to geomembrane quality assurance, are destructive testing practices as effective as basic leak detection technologies? The function of a geomembrane liner is to prevent liquid flow to the environment. CQA measures should be judged on how effective they are in meeting this requirement. This article critically examines the industry’s current means of providing confidence ...

  • Comparison of dye testing and electrical leak location testing of a solid waste liner system

    Abstract: Dye tracing and electrical leak location testing were independently conducted to detect and locate leaks in the primary geomembrane liner of two cells in a municipal landfill. Despite extensive quality control and quality assurance programs, water in the leak detection zone after construction indicated that the primary liner had a leak. Fluorescein dye tests were conducted by placing a ...

  • Specifying allowable leakage rates

    Introduction Allowable Leakage Rates or Action Leakage Rates (ALRs) are specified for installed geomembranes to quantify the maximum allowable liquid leakage. If the ALR is exceeded, corrective action must be taken to reduce the leakage rate below the set limit. To lower the leakage, the holes in the geomembrane are located and repaired. In some cases, the ALR is set so low that, ...

  • Using Geosynthetics in Slope Stability

    The majority of slope failures within the geosynthetics industry can often be avoided with proper engineering and material selection. However, the factors that affect slope stability can be difficult to discern and measure. Soil thickness, seepage forces, seismic forces, gas uplift, geomembrane texturing, engineering and provision of reinforcing elements are only a few of the factors affecting ...


    By Agru America, Inc.

  • In-Plane Flow of Four Geosynthetics for Landfill Drainage

    The in-plane flow behavior of four geosynthetics, including three geonets and one geocomposite, for landfill drainage applications was investigated. Laboratory testing was performed to evaluate the effect of boundary material (cover material), hydraulic gradient, applied normal compressive stress, and time on the flow rate. The boundary materials investigated were a geomembrane, geotextile, sand, ...


    By ASTM International

  • CBR Strength (Puncture) of Geosynthetics

    While there exist many types of mechanical tests for use on geosynthetics, most seem to be more suitable for one type of system or another. This paper focuses on a test which may have widespread applicability to assess the strength of all types of geosynthetics. It is the forcing of a 50-mm (2.0-in.) diameter plunger through a horizontally fixed geosynthetic of 150-mm (6.0-in.) diameter. Such ...


    By ASTM International

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