glass electrode Articles

  • pH Electrode Architecture

    A pH Electrode can be compared to a battery in that an electrical voltage is generated between two points that is a function of water chemistry. In the case of a pH electrode the voltage potential is a function of the acidity or alkalinity of the solution in which it is immersed. Note: The terms pH electrodes and pH probes are often used synonymously, despite the fact that there are differences. ...


    By Digital Analysis Corp.

  • How should I clean a pH electrode, or revive a damaged electrode?

    Traditional glass pH electrodes are very delicate and need regular care to keep them in good working order. If your electrode has been damaged by exposure to incompatible chemicals such as proteins, heavy metals or sulphides, you may be able to clean and revive it using specialized cleaning solutions… pH electrodes that have a single junction are particularly susceptible to damage, and can ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • The IGZO fully transparent oxide thin film transistor on glass substrate

    The IGZO enhancement mode bottom gate fully transparent thin film transistors prepared on glass substrate were studied. With a–IGZO and GZO, respectively, as active layer, source/drain and gate electrode, we achieved a very high and uniform transparence of 84% in visible range (550–880 nm). Besides, all of the layers can be prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature.Keywords: ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Transparent conducting oxides superstrate for thin film solar cells: an industrial prospective

    The demand for a TCO coated glass substrate as a base material and front electrode of the solar cells is expected to grow very strongly in the next few years. Therefore it is crucial to prepare the industrial tools and proper glass compositions to meet this very impressive demand. Mass production of extra clear glass and atmospheric pressure thermal CVD tool installed directly on the float glass ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Get the scoop on the newest technology for the measurement of pH

    SENTRON had its 20th birthday in April 2005 and is world wide known as the manufacturer of glass free ISFET (Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor) pH systems. During the 20 years we developed and manufactured not only ISFET pH sensors but also pressure sensors in our own silicon chip production facility. This facility for development and manufacturing of solid-state sensors, enables us to ...


    By Sentron Europe BV

  • Water analysis

    A complete tap water analysis includes the determination of the pH value, the alkalinity and the total water hardness. Both the pH measurement and the pH titration by means of a standard pH electrode suffer from several drawbacks. First, the response time of several minutes is too long and, above all, the stirring rate significantly influences the measured pH value. Unlike these standard pH ...


    By Metrohm AG

  • A Low-Cost Electrolytic Tiltmeter for Measuring Slope Deformation

    The tiltmeter described consists of an electrolytic sensor (a glass jar containing an electrolyte and six electrodes) and a portable AC digital conductivity meter, which reads conductivity changes resulting from tilting deflections. The tiltmeter has a sensitivity of 2 to 8 min of arc/cmu (conductivity meter unit), with a measurement range of more than 45°. This tiltmeter measured earth flow ...


    By ASTM International

  • Reliable pH measurement in Oily applications

    pH measurement in the petrochemical industry is frequently extremely difficult. Operating in high temperatures with highly reactive contaminants traditional pH reference electrodes can, in some applications, last only days. IC Controls 613 sensors reference is designed for difficult applications particularly where fouling or poisoning conditions exist. The reference uses a highly stable ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Visible light-operated glucose-O2 biofuel cell

    Visible light-operated glucose-O2 biofuel cell consisting of chlorin-e6 metal complexes (MChl?e6, M = H2 and Zn) adsorbed on TiO2 coated onto Optical Transparent conductive glass Electrode (OTE) as an anode, platinum electrode as a cathode, and the solution containing glucose, Glucose Dehydrogenase and NAD+ as a fuel is studied. The cells using H2Chl-e6 and Zn Chl-e6 adsorbed on TiO2 coated OTEs ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Dye–sensitised solar cells using TiO
    2
    nanoparticles: a review

    Over the past two decades, several research papers have been published on dye–sensitised solar cells ever since its conception was first reported in 1991. This paper discusses their basic principle, fabrication in the laboratory and developments, based on results reported in literature. The various factors which stand in favour and against their commercialisation and their characterisation by ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • What are the key steps in measuring pH? Why do I need to calibrate?

    pH is a useful parameter which is used across all industries for quality control, environmental monitoring, lab work and much more. There are 10 key steps which should be followed to ensure pH measurements using a meter are accurate. pH is a useful parameter which is used across all industries for quality control, environmental monitoring, lab work and much ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Why You Should Replace Your Fluorescent T8 Bulbs

    Fluorescent light bulbs are, for many of us, an almost nostalgic part of life. From that crackling fluorescent tube above our old kitchen stove to the almost paralyzing white light that illuminated every corner of our classrooms and office building floors, fluorescent lights have been practically everywhere for the past 80 years. The first developments in arc tube lighting trace as far back as ...


    By Forest Lighting USA

  • pH/ORP Sensors for Metallurgical Applications

    Importance of pH Measurement Hydrometallurgical concentrating and refining applications require pH/ORP sensors to withstand aggressive environments while maintaining accurate measurement. Processes such as cyanide leaching (e.g gold) and solvent extraction (e.g. copper, nickel, zinc) require pH and ORP to be at very specific values to yield the desired chemical species. pH may need ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Inactivation of E. coli bacteria by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma generated in open air under atmospheric pressure using a homemade pseudo–pulsed high voltage power supply has been used to inactivate Escherichia coli (E. coli). Effects of DBD electrodes gap, applied high voltage and plasma time treatment variations on microorganism's inactivation efficiency have been investigated using optical density measurements and ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Detection of part per trillion levels of 2,4-d in drinking water

    MATRIX: Drinking water ANALYTES: 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and related phenoxy acids LIMIT OF DETECTION: 70 ppt to 5 ppb (for 10 mL sample), 7 ppt to 0.5 ppb (for 100 mL sample) MATERIALS: 2,4-D RaPID AssayÒ Kit and Sample Diluent Reagents: 2,4-D control (preparation described below), methanol and ...


  • Water Quality Analysis Safeguarding Families

    Water is intensely purified and treated by water authorities before being ready for thousands of families. Everybody expects clean and safe tap water when turning on their taps. A water quality analysis center in Shanghi, China excels in its water testing and analysis with fully automatic potentiometric titration. Traditional Water Quality Analysis In order to ensure water hygiene and safety ...


    By Mettler - Toledo Int. Inc

  • pH Probe Maintenance

    The success or failure of pH measurement depends on the proper application of the probe and proper subsequent maintenance of the probe. The procedures described within apply to the most common pH probe in use today and that is the flat surface combination pH probe. The most common failure mode associated with pH probes is breakage. The pH electrode is a very thin glass membrane that is easily ...


    By Digital Analysis Corp.

  • In-situ quality monitoring station in Lower Saxony

    Background 'Duemmer' is a shallow lake in the south-west of Lower Saxony; through the lake flows the river 'Hunte'. The catchment area spans 426 km2. With a surface of 12.4 km2 and an average depth of 1.1 m there is a water volume of approx. 14 million m3. Large parts of the lakeside are a nature reserve and the lake is a popular local recreation area. The lake suffers from strong nutrient ...

  • Plasma gasification: Harnessing the power of lightning

    Plasma gasification is both a high-tech solution to the problem of waste management and a source of renewable power. The technology has great potential, but can it move from the fringes to the mainstream? The name "plasma gasification" conjures up images of men in lab coats late at night, investigating a far-flung corner of science that is light years away from commercial readiness. In reality it ...


  • Two Technologies for Flow Measurement from Outside a Pipe

    Doppler and Transit Time are two very popular types of flow meter for non-invasive measurement of flow in full pipes. We tend to confuse these technologies because they are both ultrasonic and both measure flow by using sensors clamped onto the outside of a pipe. In the real world they actually work best in opposite applications. Success in your installation depends on understanding the ...


    By Greyline Instruments Inc.

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