greywater treatment Articles

  • A review of greywater characteristics and treatment processes

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of different characteristics of greywater (GW) and current treatment methods. GW is domestic wastewater excluding toilet waste and can be classified as either low-load GW (excluding kitchen and laundry GW) or high-load GW (including kitchen and/or laundry). This review provides information on the quantity of GW produced, its constituents ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Greywater recycling system

    Every new home should have a Grey Water Recycling System! This innovative new product allows you to re-use your greywater (previously wasted) and recycle it for use on your gardens or reuse back through the toilets for flushing or in the laundry. Right now this is so important with low water levels, and water prices and council restrictions on the increase. The Ozzi Kleen GTS10 Greywater system's ...

  • Physicochemical treatment of office and public buildings greywater

    The current study analyses the performance of deep sand filtration of greywater from an office building and the performance of a combined physicochemical process comprising of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration. Raw greywater quality exhibited very high variability with average turbidity of 35 NTU, and TSS, CODt, and BOD of 45, 240, 75 mg/l respectively. The stand-alone filter removed 50 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Quantification and characterization of greywater from schools

    Survey of schools of different education levels (primary, intermediate and secondary) in Kuwait showed an average greywater generation rate of 7.3 L/p/d and varied in the range of 2.9–16 l/p/d, reflecting the school level of education (i.e. student age). The highest rates were observed for primary schools while the lowest rates were observed in secondary schools where students are more mature ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Quantification and characterization of greywater from schools

    Survey of schools of different education levels (primary, intermediate and secondary) in Kuwait showed an average greywater generation rate of 7.3 L/p/d and varied  in the range of  2.9 – 16 L/p/d, reflecting the school level of education (i.e. student age). The highest rates were observed for primary schools while the lowest rates were observed in secondary schools where students ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • How to tap the energy savings in greywater

    Many operators of offices, hospitals, hotels, large condos, and other buildings are aware of the need to save money and reduce their environmental impact, through better water management. The result has been the growth of ways to reduce water consumption, ranging from low-flow show-crheads to landscaping that requires minimal watering. Building operators are also aware of a similar need to ...


    By DDI Heat Exchangers Inc.

  • Treatment of domestic greywater by geotextile filter and intermittent sand filtration bioreactor

    Intermittent sand filtration (ISF) is an efficient system for treatment of greywater; however, the high quality of effluent and the simple set-up contrast with the high failure rate due to clogging of surface layers. The efficacy of several polypropylene non-woven geotextiles (apparent opening size from 0.10 to 0.18 mm) used as primary treatment filters to remove suspended particles from ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Membrane process treatment for greywater recycling: investigations on direct tubular nanofiltration

    On-site greywater recycling and reuse is one of the main ways to reduce potable water requirement in urban areas. Direct membrane filtration is a promising technology to recycle greywater on-site. This study aimed at selecting a tubular nanofiltration (NF) membrane and its operating conditions in order to treat and reuse greywater in buildings. To do so, a synthetic greywater (SGW) was ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Modelling of moving bed biofilm membrane reactors (MBBMR) for on-site greywater treatment

    The study evaluates with a mechanistic model the pilot plant results of a combined moving bed biofilm process and membrane filtration (MBBMR) treating single household greywater. It mainly includes the simulation of reactor hydraulics, degradation of pollutants, development of biomass and settlement of sludge. Iterative calibration was made with steady-state results of a 10-month pilot test. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Greywater treatment with biological aerated filter (BAF) for urban water reuse

    Greywater is an excellent resource for service water in intra-urban reuse. By substituting fresh water with appropriately treated greywater, it is possible to save 30–50% of fresh water. In this paper, an up-flow pilot biological aerated filter (BAF) is tested for the treatment of synthetic greywater and the design parameters are determined. An organic load of 8▒kg▒COD/(m3▒d) allows to achieving ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Solar disinfection for the post-treatment of greywater by means of a continuous flow reactor

    SODIS (solar disinfection) is a low-cost alternative for water decontamination. The method is based on the exposure of water, contained in PET bottles, to direct sunlight, and mainly its UV-A and infrared components. The present research studied SODIS as a low cost alternative for the inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in treated greywater, aiming at its reuse for more ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Greywater treatment for reuse: comparison of reuse options using analytic hierarchy process

    The objective of the present study was to: (i) examine the performance of two-stage sand filtration and the effect of coagulants on greywater (GW) characteristics; (ii) assess the quality of treated GW for reuse; and (iii) compare reuse options using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Four treatment options were examined on site. The first option was related to two-stage sand filtration ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Greywater recycling system installed at Canary Wharf

    First combined Rainwater Harvesting/Grey Water Recycling System to be installed at Canary Wharf in London E14A multi-storey office at Canary Wharf will be installing the first combined Grey,Rain and AC Blow down water recycling system in Canary Wharf. The reclaimed/recycled water will be used for toilet flushing feeding WC's at 9000 litres per hour. The rain and grey water will be collected in a ...

  • Household greywater use practices in Melbourne, Australia

    Research on the potential of greywater reuse to reduce urban tap water demand has focused mainly on permanently installed greywater treatment or irrigation systems. These may be readily implemented in new housing developments, but experience in Australia shows their uptake by established households in urban areas is low. The majority of households employ simple and temporary methods for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A comparative study of greywater from domestic and public buildings

    Greywater (GW) can be an important resource for urban water consumption, replacing potable water for purposes that do not require drinking water quality. If applied on a large scale, this practice will reduce the potable water demand and the wastewater produced in urban areas, minimizing the negative impacts and costs of water extraction and wastewater treatment. A correct characterization of GW ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Presence of selected priority and personal care substances in an onsite bathroom greywater treatment facility

    In recent years, concerns about climate change and the inefficient use and ongoing pollution of water resources have increased the political motivation to encourage water recycling. This has led to the widespread introduction of water saving measures and to advances in the decentralised treatment and reuse of wastewater. In particular, the treatment and reuse of greywater has received attention, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis of monitoring results of the separation and greywater treatment system at Chester Woods Park, Olmsted County, Minn.

    Introduction In 1993, Olmsted County installed an advanced individual sewage treatment system (ISTS) at the caretaker's residence at a County-owned park to demonstrate waste load reduction and downsizing of drainfield area. The subject system has two components--1) a composting/vermiculture blackwater system and a 2) aerobic graywater treatment system. The separation of the high strength ...


    By Equaris Corporation

  • Simulation and verification of hydraulic properties and organic matter degradation in sand filters for greywater treatment

    To evaluate the treatment performance of vertical flow sand filters, the HYDRUS wetland module was used to simulate treatment in an experimental set-up. The laboratory filters were intermittently dosed with artificial greywater at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.032 m3 m−2 day−1 and an organic loading rate of 0.014 kg BOD5 m−2 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Opportunities and challenges for greywater treatment and reuse in Mongolia: lessons learnt from piloted systems

    In Mongolia, as worldwide, communities are challenged by water scarcity, depletion and pollution. Greywater treatment and reuse could partially meet water demand and help protect the environment and health. In March 2010, greywater from six randomly sampled households in the Ger areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, was analyzed followed by the development of three innovative treatment systems: an ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sustainable wastewater separation treatment systems coupled with nutrient and water reducing greywater reuse technologies

    Nationally and internationally, pressure is increasing to introduce nutrient reducing, water conserving and recycling measures for sustainable residential and small community water/wastewater systems. Reports of inadequate water quality and quantity are being reported daily. Over the past thirty years the federal government and State of Alaska have invested over 4 billion dollars installing piped ...


    By Equaris Corporation

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