household sewage Articles

  • Intermittent operation of low pressure UF membranes for sewage reuse at household level

    A household-scale wastewater treatment system was operated with domestic sewage. The system could recover gardening/irrigation water from raw sewage or secondary effluent by low pressure ultrafiltration (UF). The UF membranes (surface area = 3.5 m2, pore size = 0.04 μm) were operated at constant transmembrane pressure (0.13 bar). The proposed technology was examined for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Influence of operating parameters on the performance of a household slow sand filter

    The biosand filter (BSF), an intermittently operated household slow sand filter, is one of the commonly used household water purification methods in the rural areas of developing countries. In this study, long-duration tests were conducted in the laboratory to investigate the influence of two important operating parameters, namely the pause period (idle time) and the charge volume on the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Bacterial adaptation and performance of household biosand water filters in differing temperatures

    The household biosand filter (BSF) is a highly utilized point-of-use water treatment tool. The effect of ambient temperature on the ability of the BSF to remove microbes from water is unclear. Model filters were distributed among different temperature-controlled laboratories and dosed daily with surface water amended with sewage. Comparison of the total coliform and Escherichia coli counts in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Presence and survival of fungi and clostridium Tyrobutyricum during anaerobic treatment of organic household waste

    Today the anaerobic microbial process of biogas formation is more into focus than ever. This interest is due to the fact that is offers the community means of fulfilling several obligations: treatment of organic wastes, recirculation of nutrients between urban and rural areas and production of renewable energy. Presently, several Swedish cities have built centralised biogas plants, treating ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Efficacy of a ceramic siphon household water filter for removal of pathogenic microorganisms: lifespan volume test

    Treatment of drinking water at the point of use (POU) has demonstrated health benefits for people who have access only to microbially contaminated drinking water. In this work, the ceramic siphon POU water filter was evaluated for its ability to reduce indicator microorganisms in test waters. During batch challenge tests, the filter reduced Escherichia coli in filtered water by 7 log10 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Digester gas - countess wear sewage treatment works - case study

    South West Water leads the way with highly efficient biogas combined heat and power Technology, utilising otherwise harmful digester gas. South West Water (SWW) provides clean water and sewerage services to over 1.6 million people, 365 days a year. Dedicated to environment and conservation issues, SWW is committed to using energy efficient Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation systems. SWW has ...


    By ENER-G

  • Case study - Monitoring sewage sludge AD for Southern Water

    To check sludge AD, Southern Water uses portable biogas analysers specially developed for AD biogas and based on proven methane and associated gas analysis equipment from Geotech. Southern Water has an important routine; every single day it checks the health of its sewage sludge anaerobic digesters on eighteen sites across Hampshire, IoW, Sussex and Kent. There, each day Southern Water ...


    By Geotech

  • ON-SITE SEWAGE SYSTEMS: NEW OUTLOOK FOR DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    As researchers analyze the soils’ ability to absorb discharge, more knowledge is gained about alternatives to septic tanks and standard drain fields that include peat filter systems, constructed wetlands and drip irrigation. ONE out of every four American households currently treat and release wastewater on their own property. Although most people assume that on-site systems are confined to rural ...


  • Water–energy nexus in houses in Brazil: comparing rainwater and gray water use with a centralized system

    The objective of this paper is to assess the potential for energy savings in water and sewerage services by means of on-site integrated water and sewage management strategies in low-income households in Florianópolis, Brazil. The on-site water efficiency measures include reclamation of gray water and rainwater use. The water and energy saving potential of both strategies were studied, and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biodegradation of Anionic Surfactants by Isolated Bacteria from Activated Sludge

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate, (SDS) is an anionic surfactant that widely used all over the world. They will eventually end-up and accumulate in household or industrial sewage. Due to their high foaming capabilities, which can cause numerous problems in sewage treatment facilities as well as direct toxic effects on many different organisms in ecosystem; they are generally considered as serious ...

  • Septic tank treatment explained

    Your septic tank acts as the collection point for your household sewage. It provides a holding area to allow the waste to settle and for micro-organisms to break down, liquefy and deodourise the organic matter.  The process is entirely biological and needs the presence of a healthy colony of bacteria and fungi to operate successfully. Why Problems Arise Modern cleaning agents ...


    By Cleveland Biotech Ltd.

  • Global implementation of two shared socioeconomic pathways for future sanitation and wastewater flows

    Households are an important source of nutrient loading to surface water. Sewage systems without or with only primary wastewater treatment are major polluters of surface water. Future emission levels will depend on population growth, urbanisation, increases in income and investments in sanitation, sewage systems and wastewater treatment plants. This study presents the results for two possible ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reinvent the toilet: the NUS experience of building a decentralized toilet for energy, water and resource recovery

    In conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment of sewage, the pollutants are mostly dissipated and hardly any reuse is present. This makes wastewater treatment very energy intensive and not sustainable in the future. Instead, sewage should be considered as a renewable resource, from which value can be extracted in the form of water, energy and nutrients (mostly nitrogen, N, phosphorus, P and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Drinking rainwater and reusing wastewater

    Decentralized systems for drinking water processing could make a significant  contribution to the Millennium Development Goals. With the water concept in “self”, Eawag has demonstrated that membrane technology offers the chance to do just that. Lack of drinking water hygiene is one of the main sources of disease transmission worldwide, and in many situations centralized plants ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Urban Sprawl, Water Insecurity, and Enteric Diseases in Children from Mexico City

    An ecosystem approach was adopted to investigate the interactions among anthropogenic habitat alterations, overcrowding, water insecurity, and enteric diseases in young children in Mexico City. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to define eligible wells and surrounding homesteads. Water quality was obtained from previously published investigations, and bacterial indicators included ...


    By Springer

  • Preliminary analysis of phosphorus flow in Hue Citadel

    Characteristics of waste and wastewater management can affect material flows. Our research investigates the management of waste and wastewater in urban areas of developing countries and its effects on phosphorus flow based on a case study in Hue Citadel, Hue, Vietnam. One hundred households were interviewed to gain insight into domestic waste and wastewater management together with secondary ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Removal of Microorganisms from Domestic Greywater Using a Recycling Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (RVFCW)

    ABSTRACTThe reuse of greywater (GW) is an attractive addition to water management options. One of the major concerns limiting GW reuse is the possible presence of harmful microorganisms. In addition to total coliform organisms, enteric organisms (Salmonella, Shigella and poliovirus Type 1 Cryptosporidium, Giardia) and opportunistic pathogens ( Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) may ...

  • Chlorine Theory & Measurement

    Chlorine, dissolved in liquid is one of the most effective and economical semi-killers for the treatment of water to make it potable or safe to drink. Chlorine's powerful disinfectant qualities come from its ability to bond with and destroy the outer surfaces of bacteria and viruses. Drinking water chlorination is one of the most widely used methods to safeguard chinking water supplies. In ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Moral drought: The ethics of water use

    Water has been called the berth of life as it performs basic ecological functions in every environment. Many relevant water properties are not discernible to the human senses: microbes are invisible; colour and taste often give little indication of water composition or potability. For this reason, technological deficiencies in water management are often responsible for disease, mortality and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis of trends in water quality: constructed wetlands in metropolitan Taipei

    Meandering through the most densely populated metropolitan areas of Taipei, Taiwan, the Danshui River and its tributaries have undergone the construction of 14 wetlands since 2004, as a means to improve water quality. This study was conducted to examine the functional capabilities associated with treating non-point source pollution through these riparian wetlands. Trend analysis was used to ...


    By IWA Publishing

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