hydraulic water filter Articles

  • Calculation of ceramic pot filter hydraulic conductivity using falling-head data

    Flowrate is used as a predictor of ceramic pot filter (CPF) disinfection effectiveness, and the relationship between flowrate and porosity has been examined in several studies. However, hydraulic conductivity, not porosity, is the constant of proportionality that describes flow through porous media. Equations have been developed to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of CPF side walls and bottom ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Soil Filters

    Soil filters (in german: Retentionsbodenfilter) are facilities for the removal of nutrients and/or pollutants; typically on the level of an industrial site, a quarter or a drainage system (sub-)catchment. Usually they are located at the discharge points to surface waterbodies to ensure water quality standards. Soil filters consist of two parts: The first part is a retention pond or basin for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Alternative filter media for potable water treatment

    Need for Research Roughing filters at London works: Low backwash rates for filters at older works Inability to keep sand clean (rising normalised starting head loss) Vulnerability to algal laden water Loss of production at critical times during the year Objective: identify mono-medium & dual media alternatives to BSS 14/25 ...

  • Simulation and verification of hydraulic properties and organic matter degradation in sand filters for greywater treatment

    To evaluate the treatment performance of vertical flow sand filters, the HYDRUS wetland module was used to simulate treatment in an experimental set-up. The laboratory filters were intermittently dosed with artificial greywater at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.032 m3 m−2 day−1 and an organic loading rate of 0.014 kg BOD5 m−2 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hydraulics stability of compost-based filtration media

    The longevity of compost-based storm water filtration systems has not been widely studied. Hydraulic conductivity measurements of compost amended sand media (20% and 50% v/v) within columns were undertaken. The results show that the filtration media in both columns had a reduction in the total saturated hydraulic conductivity. A tracer test showed there was no blockage due to biological or ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Innovative Multi-Media Filter – Continuous Backwash Filter

    The disadvantages of conventional MMF based pretreatment Conventional pretreatment is based on multimedia filters (MMF) implemented in large scale desalination plants. Although this filtration method is well proven and provides reliable filtration efficiency, it conceals an inherent drawback, the disadvantages of which relate mainly to the backwashing mechanism. The ...


    By IDE Technologies

  • Filtering and retention structures

    Filtering and retention structures serve the purification and intermediate storage of rainwater discharge from tilled areas. The untreated rainwater from a seperate sewer system can have a major share in water body pollution. Thereby, especially the concentration of filtratable material is problematic. Additionally, rainwater floats intermittently into the water body. Measures for purification ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Comparison of grey water treatment performance by a cascading sand filter and a constructed wetland

    A novel unplanted vertical flow subsurface constructed wetland technology comprising three shallow beds (0.6 m length, 0.45 m width and 0.2 m depth) arranged in a cascading series and a standard single-pass Vertical Flow Planted Constructed Wetland (VFPCW, 6 m2 and 0.7 m depth) were tested for grey water treatment. Particular focus was on meeting consent for published wastewater reuse parameters ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effective production of rapid filters with polystyrene granules as a media filter

    In conventional water treatment stations, the filter cleaning is performed with the use of filtered water. To save water and obtain higher production, the use of polystyrene (PS) beads has been proposed as a granular filter element because it is a granular element with a low specific mass. By being lightweight, this material requires a lower water velocity during backwash. The PS beads were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Nitrogen removal in micro-polluted surface water by the combined process of bio-filter and ecological gravel bed

    Nitrogen removal in micro-polluted surface water by the combined process of a bio-filter and an ecological gravel bed was studied. Sodium acetate was added into micro-polluted surface water as carbon source and the nitrogen removal under different C/N ratio, hydraulic load and temperature were investigated. The results showed that the variations in C/N ratio, hydraulic load and temperature have ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Rich microbial communities inhabit water treatment biofilters and are differentially affected by filter type and sampling depth

    Factors affecting microbial diversity (richness) and community structure in biofilter columns were investigated. At a pilot filtration plant, granular activated carbon (GAC), anthracite and sand-based filters were used to treat stormwater from an urban catchment. After 12 weeks operation, sand media filters clogged (hydraulic conductivity declining by 90%) and all filters were destructively ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • How well does my filter work?

    Contamination control is the key to a cost-effective maintenance operation for hydraulic or engine systems. You depend on your filters, whether hydraulic, lube or fuel, to keep your fluids clean, to keep maintenance costs down, and to ensure reliable operation. At some point, you probably will ask yourself whether or not your filters are really working and doing what they were designed to do. ...

  • The ecological filter system for treatment of decentralized wastewater

    A vertical flow constructed wetland was combined with a biological aerated filter to develop an ecological filter, and to obtain the optimal operating parameters: The hydraulic loading was 1.55 m3/(m2·d), carbon–nitrogen ratio was 10, and gas–water ratio was 6. The experimental results demonstrated considerable removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tracer studies and hydraulic behaviour of planted and un-planted vertical-flow constructed wetlands

    The aim of this research was to assess the hydraulic behaviour of three intermittently-fed vertical flow wetland units operated in parallel, designed for the treatment of raw wastewater generated in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The system was designed to serve 100 PE (∼1 m2/PE). The first filter was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia), the second with Tifton-85 (Cynodon ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Treatment of oil-field produced water by combined process of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR)-Biological Aerated Filter (BAF): a pilot study

    The combined process of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) and Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) was used to treat the oil-field produced water. The experimental results showed that for ABR the removal efficiency of oil and COD was 84.5%, 40.8%, respectively, and the ratio of BOD5/COD of the effluent increased 24.8% when the flow rate was 0.3 m³/h. For the BAF, when the hydraulic loading rate was ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Effects of earthworms on surface clogging characteristics of intermittent sand filters

    Intermittent sand filters (ISFs) are effective and economical in treating wastewater, but they are easy to clog up. To explore a feasible and simple method to alleviate clogging, two pilot-scale ISFs were constructed, one of which contained earthworms and the other did not. During the operation, the effects of earthworms on the hydraulic behaviour of ISFs were investigated. The results showed ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Treatment of Spent Filter Backwash Wastewater Using Dissolved Air Flotation Process

    Spent Filter Backwash Water (SWW) is a major recycle stream that accounts for 10% (about 30 mgd) of the average flow at Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (AWTP) and a similar proportion of nitrification and denitrification treatment process capacity (DCWASA Focus, November 2004). The peak SWW flow and load result from increased filter washing during high flow events. The combined ...

  • Comparing the performance of biosand filters operated with multiday residence periods

    Biosand filter (BSF) users are instructed to operate their filters with residence times of 1–48 hours. However, studies to date have only tested residence periods of 6–36 hours, with no studies extending to 48 hours, or investigating whether BSF performance decreases beyond 48 hours. The goal of this study was to compare Escherichia coli removal in filters operated with one-, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Molybdenum(VI) removal by using constructed wetlands with different filter media and plants

    The efficacy and capacity of vertical-flow wetland filters on molybdenum (Mo) removal from wastewater was examined, employing reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha latifolia) as well as different adsorption granular media. Humus, cinder, modified cinder, as well as pyrite were used as filter media. A synthetic effluent with different concentrations of Mo(VI) at ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pilot Testing Microfilters and Cloth-Media Filters for Lake Augmentation

    ABSTRACTMicrofiltration and cloth-media filtration were pilot tested for plant expansion and water supply augmentation purposes. The performance of the pilot units was assessed by evaluating key influent and effluent data, including suspended solids, turbidity, total phosphorous, hydraulic loading rate, flux, and chemical addition. Results showed that one of the cloth-media filters, and both of ...

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