hypochlorite generation Articles

  • On-Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation

    AbstractIn this manuscript the on-site generation of sodium hypochorite for water and wastewater disinfection will be examined. The objective of this paper is to familiarize the reader with the equipment and operational requirements necessary for on-site sodium hypochlorite generation systems. This manuscript will review the following topics relative to on-site generation systems: Understand the ...

  • Cheyenne Board of Public Utilities in Cheyenne, Wyoming Successfully Moves from Calcium Hypochlorite Tablets to Microclor On-Site Hypochlorite Generation

    The Cheyenne Board of Public Utilities (BOPU) operates the water and wastewater systems for the capital of Wyoming which has a population of more than 63,000. Located in the fast growing Front Range Urban Corridor, BOPU is challenged by growth, periodic water scarcity and aging infrastructure. During high demand, Cheyenne disinfects approximately 2 million gallons from well fields at an ...

  • ClorTec® An Operational Profile of a Pennsylvania Water Treatment Plant’s On-site Hypochlorite Generating System

    For more than 30 years, on-site generation of sodium hypochlorite has been a key process in water treatment for municipal and industrial applications. The benefits of the on-site generation process over chlorine gas and bulk hypochlorite have been well documented and include: Eliminate bulk storage of hazardous chemicals Reduce risk to plant personnel because of drastically eliminate hazardous ...


    By De Nora Water Technologies

  • Degradation of surfactant SLS in water by singlet oxygen generated by the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite

    The synergistic aqueous combination of hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite which results in the formation of the highly oxidizing intermediate species singlet oxygen (1O2) was effective in the degradation of the anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in water. The process was effective in the near neutral pH range of 6–8, and up to initial SLS concentration values of 10 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Daphne Utilities, Alabama, Enjoys More Than Seven Years of On-Site Sodium Hypochlorite Production from Process Solutions, Inc. Microclor System

    Located along the eastern shore of Mobile Bay, scenic Daphne, Alabama boasts one of the most proactive and progressive utilities in the country. Daphne Utilities which operates the gas, water and wastewater systems for the area’s roughly 20,000 inhabitants has been winning awards for excellence since its founding in 1953. In late 2007, the utility embarked on the design of a new water plant ...

  • On-Site Chlorine Generation Feasibility Study

     ABSTRACT Gaseous chlorine has been effectively used for disinfection in drinking water and wastewater treatment for decades. While various regulatory programs have placed numerous restrictions on the uses of this chemical due to its hazardous nature, recent focus on the possibility of a terrorist attack at a drinking water or wastewater facility, has underscored the potential hazard ...

  • Improvement of water quality of Tachikawa citizen swimming pool ― surprising effectiveness and performance of mixed oxidant generator made in USA

    The new type of disinfection equipment installed in October 2001 at Tachikawa Citizen Swimming Pool locating at Tachikawa city being of US made. Two years have already passed since this mixed oxidant generator has been introduced in this Journal as the one of best sample which has been completely met a localization in compliance with the Japanese environmental requirement and the ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • Electrochlorination system: a unique method of prevention of biofouling in seawater desalination

    Desalination plants require huge volumes of seawater for the generation of fresh water. Seawater contains large amounts of microbiological fluids which, when passed through the piping system, form biofouling in the inner surface of the pipeline, which results in the reduction of the flow rate of water without proper chemical treatment. Chlorine is the most commonly used disinfectant for water ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • ClorTec™ On-site Disinfection Helps Ensure Safety at British Columbia Water Treatment Facility

    Constructed in 1997, the District of Chetwynd Water Treatment Plant (British Columbia, Canada) treats nearly 2,500 cubic meters of water per day using gas chlorination as its primary form of drinking water disinfection. With recent concerns about the safety of chlorine gas, including potential eye, skin and respiratory irritation and the risk of death with high exposure, the district elected ...


    By De Nora Water Technologies

  • Chemistry of Chlorine Application and Production for the Disinfection of Water and Wastewater

     ABSTRACT A thorough understanding of chlorine and sodium hypochlorite chemistry is essential in optimizing their usage in disinfection of water and wastewater. High price of both chemicals and hazards involved in their transportation to plant sites have prompted many utilities to consider generation of these chemical on-site. A detailed discussion of the critical engineering concepts ...

  • Conservation through water reuse: Experiences from the Santa Ana Pueblo

    The Situation: The Tamayamé, the Native American Tribal members of the Santa Ana Pueblo, north of Albuquerque, NM, are committed to natural resource conservation and future economic development. In the late 1990s, they built a water reclamation facility and began reusing treated effluent to irrigate the Pueblo’s golf course. Although they were pleased with the safety and ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • ClorTec® Case Study - New Brighton Merseyside

    United Utilities PLC was created from the merger of North West Water and Norweb in November 1995. Its principal activities are managing and operating the regulated electricity distribution, water and wastewater networks in North West England, a region with a population of around 7 million.  After evaluating treatment options, United Utilities decided to install an on-site sodium hypochlorite ...


    By De Nora Water Technologies

  • ClorTec® Case Study - Ogston, Derbyshire

    Severn Trent Water is the world’s fourth largest privately-owned water company with over 8 million customers. The company supplies 1,960MI/day across a region covering more than 21,000 square kilometers. Historically two electrochlorination systems provided the disinfection requirements for the potable water at a Severn Trent Water site located at Ogston in north Derbyshire. One of the two ...


    By De Nora Water Technologies

  • Controoling chlorine costs

    The most widespread disinfectant used in the treatment of drinking water is chlorine, which can be applied in a variety of ways. History has taught us that, in bacteriological terms, chlorinating water is a proven way of disinfecting drinking water. After all, more than 75 years have passed since chlorine was used to disinfect drinking water for the first time. Many years of experience have shown ...


  • ClorTec® - The Daytona Beach Ralph Brennan Water Treatment Plant

    In 1999, the City of Daytona Beach, Florida, had one water treatment and two wastewater treatment facilities within its service area that exceeded the 2,500- pound threshold limit for gaseous chlorine. As a result, a Risk Management Plan(RMP) would have to be prepared and submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency Risk Management Planning-Accidental Release Prevention Program. While ...


    By De Nora Water Technologies

  • Case study: KLORIGEN™ system performance

    Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) plays a key role in providing the city of Des Moines and other communities in central Iowa with a safe, clean and healthy water supply. The DMWW operates two water treatment plants in central Iowa, one on Fleur Drive in Des Moines and the second one at Maffitt Reservoir, located southwest of the metropolitan area. Des Moines Water Works is an independently operated ...

  • Key Operating Strategies for Chlorine Disinfection Operating Systems

    ABSTRACTChlorine has been used as a standard for disinfecting wastewater for many years. While being the standard There are many levels of automation for control of disinfection. To select the best control approach for your facility both control strategies and chlorination chemistry must be understood. Permit conditions must also be fully identified; organism concentrations and operational data. ...

  • Mixed Oxidants show disinfection benefits for municipalities

    “The most significant advantage over gas chlorination or hypochlorination is an ability to maintain chlorine residuals further along the water distribution system, due to better biofilm removal. Other noted advantages of mixed oxidants are ease of operation with self-cleaning electrolytic cell on-site generators, fewer safety issues in comparison to gas chlorination, and lower costs ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • Filtration and manganese removal

    Manganese removal through a filter bed is generally carried out and accepted by practitioners and researchers as occurring through catalytic oxidation at the surface of MnO2 coated media, although manganese passage through a coated media filter has been little investigated. To better understand the kinetics of Mn removal through a naturally coated filter, a pilot plant consisting of four filter ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • From Gas to Liquid: Large-Scale Chlorination System Conversion

    Abstract A number of wastewater treatment facilities using gas disinfection have decided to convert to liquid disinfection for several reasons including safety, regulatory, security, and economic factors. An optimal technology plan should be developed to facilitate the conversion. This presentation provides a case study of a large chlorine disinfection system, and demonstrates key issues of ...

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