ion selective electrode Articles

  • Determining Nitrate and Nitrite Sequentially Using a Nitrite Ion Selective Electrode

    ABSTRACT Reliable analysis for NO3- and NO2- contained in wastewater, soils and reclaimed water is extremely important as these constituents can easily leach into ...


  • A polyvinylchloride-based cadmium ion-selective electrode using [Mo2(OAc)2(H2-calix[4]arene)] as an electroactive material

    A highly electroactive material Mo2[(OAc)2(H2-calix[4]arene)] is used as a neutral carrier for Cd2 +  ions in this paper. The membrane is fabricated by using ionophore [Mo2(OAc)2(H2-calix[4]arene)]:poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC): dibutylphthalate(DBP):sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) in the ratio of 40:300:470:5 respectively and tetrahydrofuran (THF) used as a solvent. The membrane electrode ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Electrolytic denitrification with an ion-exchange membrane in groundwater

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is an important issue in rural areas. In this study, an electrolytic method for the denitrification of groundwater was investigated in a laboratory reactor. We used an ion-exchange membrane, employing a titanium oxide anode and five kinds of cathode for the investigation. The nitrate removal efficiencies with Cu, Pb, Ti/Ir/Ru, Ti/Ir/Ta, and Zn cathodes were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Phosphate detection in water - a potential amperometric approach

    Excess phosphorus causes eutrophication (excess of nutrient promoting a proliferation of plants, (especially algae) inecosystems. Consequently, the monitoring of phosphate in waste, drinking and natural water is of major importance.There is a strong interest in a method alternative to the standard molybdate colorimetric method, which is not well suited to continuous monitoring under field ...


  • Water analysis

    A complete tap water analysis includes the determination of the pH value, the alkalinity and the total water hardness. Both the pH measurement and the pH titration by means of a standard pH electrode suffer from several drawbacks. First, the response time of several minutes is too long and, above all, the stirring rate significantly influences the measured pH value. Unlike these standard pH ...


    By Metrohm AG

  • Instrumentation and Operational Considerations for On-Line pH Measurement in Samples Below 10µS/cm Conductivity

    Ordinarily pH measurements are made in water with 1,000 to 10,000 µS/cm conductivity. The conductivity comes from dissolved solids which are typically salts but also acid or base. These dissolved substances are in the solution in ion form which makes such solutions conducting. With conductivities of 1,000 µS/ cm or more, an ample supply of mobile ions provides pH electrodes with a ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Titrimetric determination of sulfate

    Most methods for the titrimetric determination of sulfate do not work reliably if interfering divalent cations such as calcium and magne¬sium are present in the sample. Using the methods described below calcium and magnesium will not interfere and can even be deter¬mined in the same analysis. IntroductionSeveral different titration methods are used to determine sulfate ...


    By Mettler - Toledo Int. Inc

  • Indoor-outdoor relationship of suspended particulate matter and its chemical composition at different sizes

    The indoor-outdoor concentration relationship of particulate matter PM9.0 (aerodynamic diameter 9 µm or smaller) and its chemical composition (sulfate, nitrate, chloride and ammonium) has been studied. Samples were collected using four identical Anderson impactors, each one collecting nine size ranges by eight impactor stages (9, 5.8, 4.7, 3.3, 2.1, 1.1, 0.65 and 0.43 µm) plus a back-up ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • A voltammetric method for determining free metal activities in aqueous solutions. Part 1: direct current voltammetry of Cd, Cu, and Pb

    A selective and sensitive method for determining free metal activities (M2+) for Cd, Cu and Pb in aqueous solutions is presented based on the Lingane and DeFord and Hume models. Electrochemical and complexation studies were carried out by direct current voltammetry (DCV) and by metal ion selective electrodes (ISE) as a reference method. A voltammetric equation was tested to evaluate ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Testing for Nitrates in Water, what are the Options?

    Nitrate is a naturally occurring substance in the environment and is commonly found in most water sources, it is usually only a cause for concern in areas where water supplies can be affected by farm runs offs and agriculture, its use as a fertiliser can cause increased levels in water supplies The ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • New total hardness (Calcium and Magnesium) automated titration method case study

    MANTECH INC. is a leading manufacturer of automated multi-parameter, titration, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) laboratory and process instruments. MANTECH developed the first automated software based titration system in the world. By listening to our environmental customers, MANTECH understood the need to develop a new total hardness (calcium and magnesium) ...


    By MANTECH INC.

  • What Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) do I use for a Hydrogen Generator (Electrolyzer)?

    We've spoken already about Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) selection for a Fuel Cell; today we will cover some GDL considerations for Electrolyzers. The Hydrogen side (Cathode) of an Electrolyzer (EZ) can be almost any gas diffusion layer GDL (or even no GDL) that you would like and that fits your ...


    By Fuel Cells Etc

  • Methods of Water Purification

    This article is excerpted from 'Pure Water Handbook' published by Osmonics®, Inc. of Minnetonka, Minnesota USA and is printed with permission of Osmonics, Inc. Water treatment can be defined as any procedure or method used to alter the chemical composition or natural 'behavior' of a water supply. Water supplies are classified as either surface water or groundwater. The majority of public or ...

  • Utility of check dams in dilution of fluoride concentration in ground water and the resultant analysis of blood serum and urine of villagers, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    High levels of fluoride (beyond 1.5 ppm) in ground water as source of drinking water are common in many parts of Andhra Pradesh, India, causing fluorosis. The study carried out in endemic Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, has indicated that the fluoride-rich ground water present in the wells located down stream and close to the surface water bodies is getting diluted by the low-fluoride surface ...


    By Springer

  • Analysis of Anionic Contamination & General Quality Testing in Water from Sewage Treatment Plants and Industrial Discharge & Effluents by Colorimetry

    Problem The high concentration of Industry, Agriculture and People in and around the United States has changed the “nature” of our environment. There are Toxic Metals coming from various metallurgical processes; Plating, Foundry, Smelting, Milling, etc., which are readily determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Volatile Organics from the many Petrochemical-based operations are ...


    By Buck Scientific Inc

  • Conductivity Measurement in high purity water samples below 10 microsiems/cm

    High Purity Water Resistivity/ Conductivity Measurement Ultra-Pure Water without any chemical impurities will still have a conductivity because of the presence of H* and OH" ions due to the self-ionization of water. Ultra-pure water has a conductivity of 0.055 HSiemens'cm or a resistivity of 18.18 mQ-cm at 25 °C. In order to know the conductivity or resistivity of ultra-pure water it is ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Picking Their Membranes - Part I -

    Membrane use by water suppliers may not be new, but suppliers are considering membranes in new ways -- by number and variety of applications. Membranes can work on a wider range of resource waters, more efficiently and for less cost than before. Among membranes' attractions as substitutes for conventional water-treatment technologies, such as filtration, distillation and ion-exchange are: ...


  • Glyphosate and AMPA in drinking water

    Carcinogenic or not? The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate is used all over the world in agriculture. Alongside farming, the chemical is also used for weed-killing in domestic gardens and in public and private spaces kept free from «vegetal invasion», such as railway tracks. Glyphosate has been used since the 1970s in pesticides and was hitherto thought to be harmless at ...


    By Metrohm AG

  • Boiler Dissolved Oxygen Control

    DISSOLVED OXYGEN CHEMISTRY Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is a measure of the amount of oxygen, usually thought of as a gas, that is dissolved in a liquid such as water. Oxygen is essential to life and is also the most common element found taking part in corrosion reactions. DO can be thought of as the fuel needed for the corrosion process to proceed. It is the corrosion reactions that necessitate ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Harnessing The Power Of Microbes

    University researchers are advancing both the understanding and scalability of a biological process where bacteria living under anaerobic conditions consume organic waste and generate electrons and protons that are tapped for electricity production.IMAGINE a self-sustaining battery that never runs out of juice. While the notion may sound far-fetched, Dr. Leonard Tender at the Naval Research ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

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