life cycle cost Articles

  • Life Cycle Costing: a tool to manage the urban water cycle

    The Water Framework Directive puts much emphasis on the role of economics for improving the management of water resources. In the context of the urban water cycle, previous studies have proven that Life Cycle Costing (LCC) is a useful methodology for assessing the costs of the whole cycle. However, there are many elements and factors that can influence the results of the LCC assessment and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Life cycle costing for strategic evaluation of remanufacturing systems

    Considering the economic potential of closed-loop supply chains and the increasing recognition of an Integrated Product Policy, the development and implementation of measures concerning product-related environmental protection is necessary. In this context, remanufacturing is the most valuable product recovery option since here the value that was originally added to the product can be preserved. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Geotex® Geotextiles: A Life Cycle Costing Approach to Roads

    Subgrade contamination is the leading cause of failure in both pavements and unpaved roads. Aggregate layers used to support the traffic or pavement typically rests on a subgrade of sand, silt or clay. Without permanent separation, two factors will undoubtedly lead to the contamination of the aggregate layers—fine-grained soils will enter into the voids of the aggregate, preventing it from ...

  • Life cycle costing of a self-sufficient solar-hydrogen system

    In a renewable energy-based system, energy storage must match the energy demand with supply. Usually a lead-acid battery is utilised as a short-term energy buffer. A system, which has a combination of an electrolyser and a high-pressure hydrogen tank for long-term energy storage, is considered in this paper. The cost intensive components are sized considering the least cost and by performing a ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Counting the whole life cycle cost of pure water production

    In this article we define various grades of pure water, review technologies available for its production, and describe two systems where various process combinations have been used to generate pure water for pharmaceutical and power generation applications. We ask Dr John Hutcheson, a specialist consultant in pure water systems, what costs are involved in pure water production and what ...


    By Clarity Authoring

  • Life Cycle Analysis of Water Networks

    Abstract Water authorities around the world are faced with the problem of ageing distribution networks and often only limited historical data on which to base a sound long term, cost efficient replacement policy. The LICAN approach to whole of life costing is introduced and a hypothetical case study is used to demonstrate the importance of such an approach. A selection of pipe networks ...


    By Tric Tools, Inc.

  • Complete ozone solution with Low life cycle cost at Acomb landing WTW

    When Yorkshire Water built the new state-of-the-art water treatment plant, Acomb Landing, Primozone was chosen as the preferred ozone supplier by both Yorkshire Water and the principal contractor AECOM. ...


    By Primozone Production AB

  • A suggested framework for product life cycle cost analysis at product design stage

    This paper provides a framework for life cycle cost analysis of products at the design stage based on reliability and maintainability parameters. When dealing with reliability field data, proper selection of models for time-to-failure data is essential as it affects the expected number of failures. The conventional time-to-failure analysis techniques rely on the major assumption of independent ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Pasco County Uses Total Life Cycle Costing to Select Chloramination Analyzers

    Pasco County, Florida Water Utilities serves its customers with water from its 58 permitted wells blended with the water supplied by its large regional supplier, Tampa Bay Water. In 2002 Tampa Bay Water converted to monochloramine disinfection because of its advantages over free residual chlorine. Monochloramine is more stable and better extends the disinfectant residual throughout the ...


    By ASA Analytics

  • Incorporating Sustainability into Asset Management through Critical Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    ABSTRACTAsset management is about managing assets more effectively – which is really about making better decisions about and for assets, both existing and future. The main key to achieving better decision-making is having the right kind of information available from which to make the decisions. The goals that better decision making are trying to reach are service levels that are met, risks, ...

  • Sewer-Main Collection Pipe Joint Infiltration Testing and Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    ABSTRACTResearch ProjectsMajor members of the sewer-main pipe manufacturing industry and the University of Houston have completed and published the results of the following two research projects: The Sewer-Main Collection Pipe Joint Infiltration Testing research project that measured the water infiltration rate of water-tight designed 30-inch pipe joints. The joint tightness testing was ...

  • Opportunity cost principles for life cycle assessment: toward strategic decision making in agriculture

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used for products that require natural resources as important inputs. Relating environmental impacts to the whole production chain makes the method often interpreted as holistic and useful for environmental policy and strategic decision-making. The authors of this paper argue that there are limitations of using LCA for such purposes in food production. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Life cycle cost analysis of water supply infrastructure affected by low rainfall in Ethiopia

    This paper challenges the assumption that low cost CAPEX (capital expenditure) water supply infrastructure provides reduced life cycle costs when compared with higher cost CAPEX investments. The assumption is applied through a comparison of 10 years of financial data (2006–2016) from point source water supplies (accompanied by Emergency Expenditure – EMMEX investments – emergency water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A simulation tool for life cycle costing of water supply infrastructure in seismically active zones

    In the face of increased development, civil infrastructure systems are increasingly vulnerable to catastrophic failures as a result of ageing, overuse and poor planning when disasters such as earthquakes strike. Water supply systems are among the most vulnerable infrastructure systems and arguably, the most essential for human existence. Investment decisions regarding the retrofitting or ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Target structural reliability in life cycle consideration

    The concept of minimising life cycle cost can be rationally applied to determine a target reliability of structures. However, there has been a recent legal requirement to reduce CO2 emissions, therefore, the minimisation of life cycle CO2 emission could be an alternative approach in structural design. This paper explains the general formulae for deciding the optimum reliability by minimising the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The role of life-cycle analysis in risk assessment

    The relationship between life-cycle analysis and risk assessment is explored on a methodological level, and examples of state-of-the-art studies are presented and discussed, leading to an identification of some areas needing further work.Keywords: energy systems, externalities, full costing, life cycle analysis, LCA, risk ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Energetic and exergetic life cycle analysis to explain the hidden costs and effects of current sulphur utilisation

    Typically life cycle analyses of the fertiliser industry are based on averages of outdated technology. Sulphur is a major element, emerging as a primary nutrient on its own accord and as a feed for other fertiliser production, namely phosphoric acid. Recent developments sparked by governmental regulation have raised the validity of an assumption frequently overlooked. Through the desulphurisation ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Improving Life-Cycle Performance with Pavement Interlayers

    In an environment of limited and decreasing budgets in the private and public sectors, it is increasingly important that investments made in pavement infrastructure are maximized to their fullest potential. Pavement interlayers, also known as geosynthetics, can be integrated into asphalt mix overlay applications to limit the intrusion of water and reduce the reflective cracking, thereby promoting ...


    By Nilex

  • Agency costs theory and the financing life cycle empirical evidence from Swedish firm–level data

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the financing life cycle pattern of micro–firms in Sweden from the agency costs theory perspective. The study shows that the financing structures of firms change over the firms' life cycles. Firms generally rely on internal financial sources such as equity capital and retained profits, particularly at the start–up stage. They also use short–term ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Life-cycle costs approach (LCCA) for sustainable water service delivery: a study in rural Andhra Pradesh, India

    This paper illustrates the usefulness of the life-cycle costs approach (LCCA) framework and methodology in addressing slippage and sustainability issues in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) sector in the State of Andhra Pradesh (AP), India. Source sustainability, poor operation and maintenance and water quality are the main reasons for slippage in India. The paper examines the actual ...


    By IWA Publishing

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