magnesium hardness Articles

  • New total hardness (Calcium and Magnesium) automated titration method case study

    MANTECH INC. is a leading manufacturer of automated multi-parameter, titration, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) laboratory and process instruments. MANTECH developed the first automated software based titration system in the world. By listening to our environmental customers, MANTECH understood the need to develop a new total hardness (calcium and magnesium) ...


    By MANTECH Inc.

  • Hard Facts about Hard Water

    Have you noticed unwanted mineral buildups on your faucets? Are your clothes dull and scratchy? These are common signs of hard water, an issue affecting many households, in particular those getting their water from a well. ...


    By AquaBSafe

  • Magnesium in drinking water – a case for prevention?

    Studies in many countries have demonstrated a relationship between drinking water mineral content and the risk of death in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Particularly strong relationships have been found for magnesium and it has been suggested that magnesium be added to drinking water. The aim of this article is to evaluate the validity of this suggestion by reviewing information on possible ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • How can I measure temporary and permanent water hardness?

    Hard water is water with high levels of dissolved minerals, and usually occurs in areas where limestone and chalk are common. These minerals can be divided into two types, and so hardness is often considered in two categories – permanent and temporary water hardness. So how can we measure water hardness? Can we measure temporary and permanent ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Cardiovascular diseases and hard drinking waters: implications from a systematic review with meta-analysis of case-control studies

    This systematic review with meta-analysis, performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, aims at evaluating the potential correlation between magnesium and calcium concentration in drinking waters and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which impose a considerable burden in high-income countries. Included studies were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Impact of environmentally based chemical hardness on uranium speciation and toxicity in six aquatic species

    Treated effluent discharge from uranium (U) mines and mills elevates the concentration of U, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulfate (SO42‐) above natural levels in receiving waters. Many investigations on the effect of hardness on U toxicity were often experiments on the combined effect of changes in hardness, pH and alkalinity which do not represent water chemistry downstream of U mines and ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Water softeners fact sheet

    What is hard water? According to a recent U.S. Geological Survey, 85 percent of the United States’ geography has hard water. Hard water is water that contains certain naturally occurring minerals, particularly magnesium and calcium. Hard water causes many problems in a home, including deposits in sinks and bathtubs and gummed-up pipes in home plumbing systems and water-using ...

  • Water analysis

    A complete tap water analysis includes the determination of the pH value, the alkalinity and the total water hardness. Both the pH measurement and the pH titration by means of a standard pH electrode suffer from several drawbacks. First, the response time of several minutes is too long and, above all, the stirring rate significantly influences the measured pH value. Unlike these standard pH ...


    By Metrohm AG

  • Introduction to Ion Exchange Part 1

    IMPURITIES IN WATERWater is often referred to as the 'universal solvent' as it will dissolve small amounts of everything it touches. Water collects or dissolves a variety of mineral salts, organic compounds and suspended solids as it flows over the earth's surface and through the ground. These impurities make water undesirable for use in many applications. It is, therefore, important to ...


  • Magnetic Water Conditioner

    I am sure you have heard about hard water before, and also know that hard water is bad for our health. If you check the kettle for boiling water, you will see limescale which will affect the efficiency of energy. There are several solutions for water softening, especially to lower the calcium and magnesium in water. 1. The easiest way is just to boil the water, the calcium hydroxide and magnesium ...


    By Stanford Magnets

  • Cooling Systems: Increased Costs from Mineral Scaling and Biological Fouling - Case Study

    Mineral scaling and biological fouling are two of the most common problems associated with watercooled systems, and the costs from these issues can be enormous. By understanding how these issues affect cooling water systems, and their associated cost drivers, facility managers can make informed decisions on proper scale and biological fouling control. Scale Definition ...


    By Innovas Technologies LLC

  • Evaluating the effects of septic tank on shallow wells in Iba housing estate, Ojo LGA, Lagos

    Water samples from 30 shallow wells were measured for depth, depth to water table, and distance to septic tank. In situ parameters including electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, and temperature were measured using portable meters. Chemical parameters including salinity, chloride, calcium, alkalinity and total hardness were determined using titrimetry method. Sulphate and nitrate ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Scalewatcher reduces car wash salt useage from 700lbs a week to 500lbs a year

      The Star Car Wash in Trussville, Alabama has dramatically reduced the amount of salt used in its water softeners from around 700 pounds per week to a diminutive 500 pounds per year following the installation of the computerized, electronic, water-conditioner Scalewatcher® from Scalewatcher North America. This has not only saved the company thousands of dollars a year in salt ...

  • Dealing with hydrogen sulfide induced problems downstream of sewer rising mains

    The problems that arise from hydrogen sulfide formation in sewer rising mains are often dealt with by adding chemicals. The most commonly used chemicals are sodium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide, ferric (or ferrous) chloride, calcium nitrate and oxygen. As there is a lack of tools to evaluate and compare dosing strategies, it is hard to identify the most appropriate dosing chemical in terms ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Harpersville town water treated with eco-friendly scalewatcher

    The population of the small Alabama town of Harpersville is enjoying improved water quality, with less limescale corroding pipework and water-fed equipment, following the installation of the award-winning ScalewatcherÒ computerized, electronic water conditioner.  Within two weeks of the industrial Scalewatcher system being installed, local residents were contacting Harpersville Water ...

  • Determination of water quality index by fuzzy logic approach: a case of ground water in an Indian town

    The paper proposes fuzzy logic model that deals with the physico-chemical water analysis of ground water of Chikhli town for determination of Water Quality Index (WQI). The study was carried by collection of ground water samples from about eleven hand pumps located in this town. Ground water quality is studied by systematic collection and analysis of samples. The fuzzy logic is used for the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Skid mounted BWRO Systems, Venezuela

    INTRODUCTION In July 2013, Pure Aqua successfully manufactured and supplied five skid mounted BWRO systems to a major company in Venezuela. The skid mounted BWRO systems came complete with am activated carbon filter for chlorine ...


    By Pure Aqua, Inc.

  • Identification of indispensable components for a better drinking water quality management: Tunis case of study

    In order to reduce the number of operations for the assessment of potable water treatment, principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering are applied to large databases of raw and treated water of three treatment plants with various processes. It appears that the measurements can be divided into three clear groups, with a correlation higher than 0.8. The first contains salinity, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water reuse for the bottled water industry

    ABSTRACTThe bottled water industry uses a machine specifically designed for the washing of its containers (19-L capacity) and generates 6-L wastewater/container. This effluent can be used for watering of green areas and car washing. The objectives of the present work were to characterize the effluent and to propose a specific treatment to enable reuse of the effluent from the container washing ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Commercial Twin Alternating Water Softener, Nicaragua

    INTRODUCTION In July 2013, Pure Aqua designed and manufactured a commercial twin alternating water softener with 30” FRP tanks, 30” brine tank and Aquamatic valves for a major company in Nicaragua. Feed water to the softener was well water. Its purpose was to lower the hardness in the water to ...


    By Pure Aqua, Inc.

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