membrane autopsy Articles

  • Results from 99 seawater ro membrane autopsies

    Abstract This paper presents results from 99 sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane autopsies carried out by the Genesys laboratory in Madrid from 2002 and outlines the technical issues surrounding fouling and scaling of sea water membranes. The authors discuss historical results of membrane autopsies and link recent trends and changes in plant design to potential fouling and ...

  • Evaluation of novel hollow fibre membranes for NOM removal by advanced membrane autopsy

    A full-scale inside out hollow fibre membrane module was operated in a pilot-scale water treatment plant in Sweden for a period of 12 months from August 2013 to July 2014. Liquid chromatography– organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) chromatogram indicated the membranes could effectively remove 86% of dissolved organic carbon and 92% of humic substances from the feedwater. Routine cleaning-in-place ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A study of the physical and chemical damage on reverse osmosis membranes detected by autopsies

    Abstract Water treatment by reverse osmosis technology has as main aim to reject the maximum percentage of ions from raw water, giving as much treated water flow as possible. When there is a loss in these two parameters performance, it is essential to find the source of the failure, in order to use the necessary tools for its recovery. At this point, membrane autopsies are a very ...

  • Cleaning biofouled membranes early improves plant operation. Comparison of autopsy and cleaning results on a small BWRO and large SWRO

    Abstract It is a fact that all new reverse osmosis membranes start to foul as soon as they start operation. The only variable is the rate at which they foul. Most RO plants operate at a differential pressure (ΔP) of 1.5 - 3 bar. Cleaning usually occurs when the ΔP is 10-15% above the design specification. This paper explores the benefits of early identification of foulants ...

  • Direct observations of membrane scale in membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment application

    The formation of inorganic fouling on MF membrane was investigated in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating industrial wastewater. Membrane autopsy works using microscopic techniques and surface analysis were carried out at the completion of pilot-scale operation to analyze foulant materials extensively. Scaling occurred on the membrane surface significantly in the MBR treating calcium-rich ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of the membrane fouling simulator to determine biofouling potential of antiscalants in membrane filtration

    In treatment of groundwater with reverse osmosis, the applied antiscalant can significantly contribute to the formation of biofouling, especially when legislation enforces the use of biodegradable, phosphorous-free products. As an alternative to extensive piloting, the use of the membrane fouling simulator (MFS) is proposed here to assess the biomass growth potential of different antiscalants. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Safe use of microbubbles for removal of RO membrane fouling

    Abstract The authors have shown a dramatic improvement in cleaning efficiency when effervescent cleaning reagents are used in conjunction with bubbles created using a specially designed microbubble generator. One potential problem associated with this new technique is that the bubbles will cause damage to the delicate polyamide layer and other structures in the RO element. In order to ...

  • Innovations in the inhibition of reverse osmosis membrane scaling and fouling

    Abstract: Scaling and fouling of membranes is an on-going performance issue for most plants. There are continual improvements in membrane technology and plant design which increase efficiency, water quality and utilise different raw water supplies to produce clean pure water. This presentation outlines innovations in laboratory services and speciality chemicals designed to inhibit membrane ...

  • The Millennials - our next generation of membrane experts

    Raul Gonzalez is a Technical Support Specialist at Avista Technologies in San Marcos, CA. After completing his Bachelor’s Degree from Cal Poly Pomona in Civil Engineering, Raul participated in the Orange County Water District internship program focused on regulatory and water production. In ...


    By Avista Technologies

  • Air bubbles enhance membrane cleaning: a future perspective

    Abstract Air bubbles generated using a novel micro-bubble generator have displayed a dramatic enhancement in cleaning efficiency when used in conjunction with specially formulated cleaning chemicals. In order to establish the effect of this application on membrane performance, a series of experiments were conducted using both a flat sheet test rig and a small scale pilot plant. ...

  • Optimizing Reverse Osmosis Membrane Life case study

    Background An Independent District Heating and Cooling Facility used a municipal Lake Michigan water supply to operate a reverse osmosis system with three 200- gpm trains and was experiencing highpressure differentials and short runs between cleanings. The water had an SDI of 5–6 prior to the prefilters and an SDI of 3–4 after the prefilters. The system does not require ...


    By ChemTreat, Inc.

  • Cleaning clay (aluminosilicates) from fouled membranes

    Abstract Within the lifetime of most reverse osmosis (RO) systems some fouling will adversely affect membrane performance. The major constituents of foulants found on the first position during six years of membrane autopsy at the Genesys Membrane laboratory are clay minerals chemically known as aluminosilicates. Clay is a naturally occurring material found in all RO feed waters ...

  • Suitability of cationic flocculants for RO membranes performance improvement

    Abstract As it has already been published and demonstrated, one of the main causes of membranes failures is related to a poor plant pre-treatment. Data from more than 600 autopsies demonstrated that both biofilm and colloidal matter are the most common components on RO (reverse osmosis) membranes fouling, therefore, main lack on membranes pre-treatment is related to disinfection and ...

  • The safe use of cationic flocculants with reverse osmosis membranes

    Abstract Flocculants are used in combination with coagulants to agglomerate suspended particles for removal by filtration. This technique is used extensively in all types of surface waters to reduce the silt density index (SDI) and minimise membrane fouling. Although organic cationic flocculants are particularly effective, their widespread use in membrane applications is limited ...

  • Foulants analyses for NF membranes with different feed waters

    Two different NF membranes were operated to remove natural organic matter (NOM) originating from Dongbok Lake in Korea. Coagulation/sedimentation and sand filtration treated waters as membrane feed waters were used. Tested NF membranes such as RF (Saehan, Korea) and NF90 (Filmtec, USA) membranes were exhibited slightly different pore size distribution, hydrophobicity and surface charge in terms ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Removing biofilm from membranes – a practical approach

    Abstract Within the lifetime of most reverse osmosis (RO) systems some fouling will adversely affect membrane performance.One of the major foulants identified on lead membranes during a decade of membrane autopsy at the Genesys Membrane laboratory is biological fouling (biofouling). All raw water sources contain microorganisms such as algae, bacteria and fungi. They also contain ...

  • Evaluating impact of fouling on reverse osmosis membranes performance

    Abstract Membrane fouling is commonly defined as an undesirable formation of deposits on mem- brane surfaces and it is considered a major problem in most brackish, seawater, and waste water reclamation applications. Depending on nature of the scale and foulant, fouling pro- cesses will lead to decreased membrane fluxes, increased pressures needs, and/or increased permeate conductivity. ...

  • Genairclean RO membrane cleaning - Case Study

    Trial Period September 2013 to May 2014 Site Water Reuse system, UK Background A Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (BWRO) system with a history of rapid and consistent membrane fouling was selected to trial the new ‘Genairclean’ micro-bubble multi-mechanism RO membrane cleaning method. The plant reclaims process ...

  • Problems of operation and main reasons for failure of membranes in tertiary treatment systems

    Abstract This paper presents and discuss the results of the long term operation and monitoring of membrane fouling at several full-scale MF/RO water recycling facilities operated by Agbar in Spain. It was demonstrated that membranes are very reliable treatment enabling the production of high-grade recycled water, well disinfected and with the removal of all priority substances. The ...

  • Influence of permeation on air/water cleaning of spiral wound membrane NF/RO elements

    To improve hydraulic conditions, periodic air/water cleaning (AWC) is applied to a nanofiltration (NF) spiral wound membrane (SWM) element under permeation conditions to control biofouling and particulate fouling. A pilot study was carried out for 212 days with a vertically positioned SWM element fed by tap water enriched with a biodegradable compound (60 μg acetate-C l−1). Operational parameters ...


    By IWA Publishing

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