membrane diffuser Articles

  • My diffuser goes up to eleven, actually twelve

    Abstract Fine pore membrane diffusers arc used extensively worldwide for aeration of activated sludge basins. Aeration can account for as much as 60% of a plant's energy usage (Rosso, et al. 2005). Pore fouling and membrane material degradation can reduce energy efficiency of fine pore membrane diffusers to 50% of the original efficiency after just a few years of operation. Tins work ...


    By Aquaconsult Anlagenbau GmbH

  • ITRC guidance document for passive diffusion sampling

    The ITRC in conjunction with the USGS, US EPA, US Army Corp of Engineers, and other prominent federal and state groups have released a comprehensive document, based on significant case studies and backed up by controlled laboratory testing, for the use of polyethylene membrane passive diffusion samplers, such as the EQUILIBRATOR Diffusion Sampler manufactured by EON Products, Inc. Part 1 of the ...


    By EON Products Inc.

  • ITRC position paper for passive diffusion sampling, 2002

    This document is intended to facilitate the use of polyethylene diffusion bag (PDB) samplers for long-term monitoring (LTM). The guidelines presented in Sections 2 and 3 relate to appropriate implementation, data interpretation, and regulatory issues of concern. Although diffusion samplers can be useful for many different activities and have membranes composed of various materials, this ...


    By EON Products Inc.

  • What is the Purpose of a Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL)?

    The Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) plays several critical roles in a typical fuel cell application and is often integrated as part of the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). Typical applications that use GDLs consist of Polymer Electrolyte  ...


    By Fuel Cells Etc

  • Performance of Palladium Diffusers for Reliable Purification of Hydrogen

    Hydrogen generators are now becoming an essential component in many laboratories with greater gas consumption levels. Generators are considered to be preferable to cylinders, particularly because of the safety concerns about having high pressure hydrogen in the laboratory working environment. Hydrogen generator systems typically produce Hydrogen with a two-phase system. Hydrogen is first ...

  • Assessment of diffuser pressure loss on WWTPs in Baden-Württemberg

    Aeration of activated sludge is a critical treatment step for the operation of activated sludge plants. To achieve a cost effective treatment process, assessing and benchmarking of aeration system performance are important measures. A simple means of gauging the relative condition of a fine bubble diffused aeration system is to evaluate the pressure loss of the diffusers as oxygen transfer tests ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Membrane Free Volume Characterization

    Free Volume in Reverse Osmosis Membrane Reverse Osmosis (RO) is the leading technique for water desalination. RO membranes have been optimized over the past three decades. Typically, commerical RO membranes can produce drinking water from seawater. Water and salt transport through RO membrane follows the so-called Solution-Diffusion Model. Particularly, during separation, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Picking Their Membranes - Part I -

    Membrane use by water suppliers may not be new, but suppliers are considering membranes in new ways -- by number and variety of applications. Membranes can work on a wider range of resource waters, more efficiently and for less cost than before. Among membranes' attractions as substitutes for conventional water-treatment technologies, such as filtration, distillation and ion-exchange are: ...


  • Full scale evaluation of diffuser ageing with clean water oxygen transfer tests

    Aeration is a crucial part of the biological wastewater treatment in activated sludge systems and the main energy user of WWTPs. Approximately 50 to 60% of the total energy consumption of a WWTP can be attributed to the aeration system. The performance of the aeration system, and in the case of fine bubble diffused aeration the diffuser performance, has a significant impact on the overall plant ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Field trial of a new commercially available diffusive ground-water sampler

    Field trials of a new commercially available diffusive ground-water sampling device were conducted at two industrial properties in the Blue Ridge Province of North Carolina. The test sites have extensive monitoring well networks and more than five years of historical water quality data. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including purgeable aromatics (petroleum hydrocarbons) and halogens ...


    By EON Products Inc.

  • ITRC technical regulatory guidelines for passive diffusion sampling, 2004

    Polyethylene diffusion bag (PDB) samplers are low-density polyethylene bags containing deionized water, used to collect water samples in groundwater wells for laboratory analyses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). PDB samplers are passive devices, relying on the movement of groundwater from the aquifer or water-bearing zone through the screen or open interval of a well. VOCs in groundwater ...


    By EON Products Inc.

  • Ion transport characteristics in nanofiltration membranes: measurements and mechanisms

    Ion transport characteristics during nanofiltration (NF) were investigated by measuring effective osmotic pressure and diffusivity experimentally. Effective osmotic pressure and diffusivity were measured through lab-scale transport and diffusion tests. First, it was shown that the water flux across NF membranes decreased dramatically with increasing ionic strength because of the noticeable ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Activation Procedures

    Why is an activation procedure or break-in necessary for a membrane electrode assembly (MEA)?  A large reason for performing an activation procedure or break-in is to properly humidify the membrane portion of the MEA that was dried out during the hot press stage of the membrane electrode ...


    By Fuel Cells Etc

  • Osmotic distillation using Liqui-Cel® membrane contactors

    Osmotic distillation — a separation process in which a liquid mixture containing a volatile component is contacted with a microporous, non-liquid-wettable membrane whose opposite surface is exposed to a second liquid phase capable of absorbing that component — is nearing commercialization for the concentration of beverages and other liquid foodstuffs, and is ...

  • What Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) do I use for a Hydrogen Generator (Electrolyzer)?

    We've spoken already about Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) selection for a Fuel Cell; today we will cover some GDL considerations for Electrolyzers. The Hydrogen side (Cathode) of an Electrolyzer (EZ) can be almost any gas diffusion layer GDL (or even no GDL) that you would like and that fits your ...


    By Fuel Cells Etc

  • Study of cyanide wastewater treatment by dispersion supported liquid membrane using trioctylamine and kerosene as liquid membrane

    A certain amount of cyanide is present in wastewater of various industrial processes, such as wet extraction of gold, coal processing, electroplating and other industries. In this work, an experimental study regarding transport of cyanide through a dispersion supported liquid membrane was performed. A model was established to describe the reaction and transport of CN(I) in the supported liquid ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Mesoscale modelling: recent developments and applications to nanocomposites, drug delivery and precipitation membranes

    Mesoscale simulations have traditionally been used to investigate structural morphology of polymers in solution, melts and blends. Recently, such modelling methods are being pushed to important areas of Nanotechnology and Drug delivery that are well out of reach of classical molecular dynamics. This paper describes our current efforts in three important emerging areas: polymer-nanotube ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Hydrogenotrophic denitrification of drinking water using a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor

    The objective of this research was to investigate the performance of a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor (HFMB) for hydrogenotrophic denitrification of contaminated drinking water. In the HFMB, H2 flows through the lumen of the hydrophobic hollow fibres and diffuses to an attached H2 oxidizing biofilm. Nitrate in the contaminated water serves as an electron acceptor. A hydrogenotrophic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The preparation characteristics of hydrogen permselective membranes for higher performance in nuclear hydrogen production

    The thermochemical water-splitting method has been proposed as a clean method for hydrogen production. The IS (iodine–sulphur) process is one of the thermochemical water-splitting processes. The silica membrane to apply in membrane reactor for the HI decomposition reaction improvement of the IS process was prepared by sol-gel and thermal CVD (chemical vapour deposition) methods. In the prepared ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Hydrogen purification with palladium and palladium alloys on porous stainless steel membranes

    Hydrogen purification membranes have been prepared via a simultaneous electroless plating of Pd and Ag on a 0.5 ?m media grade Porous Stainless Steel (PSS). Effects of the electroless bath temperature, composition, annealing time and temperature were studied while developing the Pd coating. Very low but measurable N2 fluxes were seen, ranging from 0.010 to 0.020 cm?/cm?-min at temperatures ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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