montreal protocol Articles

  • Ozone depleting substances (ODS) and The Montreal Protocol

    The Montreal Protocol, officially called the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, is an international treaty created to reduce the damage being caused to the stratospheric ozone layer by air pollutants such as refrigerant gases. The ozone layer protects the earth from damaging UV-B radiation, which could lead to increased cases of skin cancer, damaged crops and marine ...


    By Verisae

  • Technical implications of the 1987 Montreal Protocol for developing countries

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol, which came into force in 1989 and was subsequently strengthened by the 1990 and 1992 amendments, has profound implications for both developed and developing countries. The implications for developed countries have understandably received and continue to receive considerable attention. However, the implications for technology, industry, training and development, and the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Questions and Answers on the European Commission Communication: The Paris Protocol – A blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020

    1. What is the aim of the Communication? The Communication sets out the EU's vision for a transparent and dynamic, legally binding United Nations climate change agreement that sets the world on a pathway to prevent global warming from reaching dangerous levels. International negotiations are under way and are set to be finalised at the UN climate conference in Paris in December 2015. ...


    By Europa Press Room

  • Handbook for the International Treaties for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (5th Edition)

    Guide to this Handbook The conclusion in 1985 of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, followed in 1987 by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, were the starting points of global co-operation for the protection of the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer. The five meetings held by the Parties to the Vienna Convention in 1989, 1991, 1993, 1996 ...


  • Innovation by disaster: the ozone catastrophe as experiment of forced innovation

    In this paper, the process of adapting and replacing products and processes by new alternatives will be analysed. The paper will reflect upon effective means of stimulating environmental innovation by analysing the innovations that resulted from the ban on CFCs. The ozone hole catastrophe has been announced in two steps: first there was the land breaking paper of Rowland and Molina of 1974, which ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2013

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Background The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer entered into force in 1989 and aims to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out more than 200 substances, ...

  • The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2006

    The latest analysis of data from the WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network shows that the globally averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have reached new highs in 2006 with CO2 at 381.2 ppm and N2O at 320.1 ppb. Atmospheric growth rates in 2006 of these gases are consistent with recent years. The mixing ratio of methane (CH4 ) remains almost unchanged ...

  • Determination of oil and grease in water with a mid-infrared spectrometer

    The concentration of dispersed oil and grease (OG) is an important parameter for water quality and safety. OG in water can cause surface films and shoreline deposits leading to environmental degradation, and can induce human health risks when discharged in surface or ground waters. Additionally, OG may interfere with aerobic and anaerobic biological processes and lead to decreased wastewater ...


    By PerkinElmer, Inc.

  • U.S.-China agreement on HFCs a `Breakthrough` on climate change

    During the U.S.-China informal summit this weekend, President Obama and President Xi agreed to advance cooperation on climate change by reducing emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), a potent greenhouse gas. According to the announcement, the countries will work under the Montreal ...

  • How to reverse the causes of ozone layer destruction

    Since the causes of ozone layer depletion were identified, solutions were put into place to reduce or eliminate their usage. The U.S. Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocols address the problem internationally. The goal of these treaties is to stop the damage to the ozone layer by phasing out known contributors.Although there are numerous causes of ozone layer depletion, chloroflurocarbons have ...


    By Verisae

  • New ASTM Test Method Offers Quick and Easy Oil and Grease Measurement for Water and Soil Samples

    Onsite Field Measurement of Oil and Grease A quick and easy field analysis method for determining oil and grease concentration levels is important for both offshore oil platforms and soil remediation sites.. Prior to the Montreal Protocol, infrared (IR) analysis using Freon as an extraction solvent was a widely used field and laboratory method. In 1999, the U.S. EPA promulgated Method 1664A ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • WMO Greenhouse gas bulletin

    The latest analysis of data from the WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), shows that the globally averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have reached new highs in 2007 with CO2 at 383.1 ppm, CH4 at 1789 ppb and N2O at 320.9 ppb. These values are higher than those in ...

  • Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2012 and inventory report 2014 - Submission to the UNFCCC Secretariat

    BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE The European Union (EU), as a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), reports annually on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories for the years 1990 to t-2 for emissions and removals within the area covered by its Member States (i.e. domestic emissions taking place within its ...

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2014

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction, and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Background The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone layer, which entered into force in 1989, aims to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out more than 200 ...

  • How to better manage refrigerant gases in order to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs)

    Carbon emissions reporting requires detailed monitoring record keeping of emission sources. Reducing a company's CO2 emissions has an impact on climate change. Carbon reporting needs to be approached in a structured organized way. Doing so in this way is known as carbon management. Carbon (CO2) Emissions Reporting: It's the law. In many countries, carbon emissions are required by law to be ...


    By Verisae

  • Refrigerant compliance includes calculating carbon emissions

    If you manage a facility using a refrigeration and air-conditioning (RAC) system or heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC-R) system, it’s time to comply with federal and state environmental laws regarding carbon emissions. To help reduce greenhouse gases, the law requires calculating carbon emissions. This means monitoring, collecting data and performing extensive reporting of CO2 ...


    By Verisae

  • Can the U.S. get there from here? Using existing federal laws and state action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are expected to rise unless additional policy actions are taken. This report identifies a suite of policies that the Administration can pursue that do not require new legislation by the U.S. Congress. If pursued with “go-getter” level ambition, those policies can reduce U.S. emissions 17 percent below 2005 levels in 2020. Key Findings Without new ...

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2015

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction, and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Executive Summary Background Chemicals known to harm the ozone layer have been successfully substituted in most parts of the world since 1989, when the Montreal Protocol on Substances ...

  • Emission scopes help to categorize greenhouse gas (GHGs) reporting efforts

    Emission scopes are being used to determine the category of chemical and usage area, so that facilities can understand and monitor their greenhouse gas impact. The US Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocol have established that emissions of harmful substances must be controlled worldwide. When discharged into the air, these chemicals can cause severe damage to the global environment. Three ...


    By Verisae

  • A Guide on International Chemical Conventions

    There are many international chemical conventions restricting or even banning the production, use and trade of certain hazardous chemicals for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment. We have prepared a guide on major international chemical conventions with a focus on their aims, controlled substance list, control measures and their impacts. Note: You do ...


    By ChemSafetyPRO.COM

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