Montreal protocol Articles

  • Handbook for the International Treaties for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (5th Edition)

    Guide to this Handbook The conclusion in 1985 of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, followed in 1987 by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, were the starting points of global co-operation for the protection of the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer. The five meetings held by the Parties to the Vienna Convention in 1989, 1991, 1993, 1996 ...


  • Technical implications of the 1987 Montreal Protocol for developing countries

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol, which came into force in 1989 and was subsequently strengthened by the 1990 and 1992 amendments, has profound implications for both developed and developing countries. The implications for developed countries have understandably received and continue to receive considerable attention. However, the implications for technology, industry, training and development, and the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2013

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Background The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer entered into force in 1989 and aims to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out more than 200 substances, including chlorofluorocarbons ...

  • Innovation by disaster: the ozone catastrophe as experiment of forced innovation

    In this paper, the process of adapting and replacing products and processes by new alternatives will be analysed. The paper will reflect upon effective means of stimulating environmental innovation by analysing the innovations that resulted from the ban on CFCs. The ozone hole catastrophe has been announced in two steps: first there was the land breaking paper of Rowland and Molina of 1974, which ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • National management strategy for Methyl Bromide

    The United States has supported the objectives of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Protocol, or Montreal Protocol) since before the inception of this landmark environmental treaty in 1987. The United States developed this strategy on methyl bromide (MeBr) in accordance with Decision Ex. I/4 (3) which requests a Party nominating a Critical Use Exemption (CUE) after ...

  • Ozone depleting substances (ODS) and The Montreal Protocol

    The Montreal Protocol, officially called the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, is an international treaty created to reduce the damage being caused to the stratospheric ozone layer by air pollutants such as refrigerant gases. The ozone layer protects the earth from damaging UV-B radiation, which could lead to increased cases of skin cancer, damaged crops and marine ...


    By Accruent

  • U.S.-China agreement on HFCs a `Breakthrough` on climate change

    During the U.S.-China informal summit this weekend, President Obama and President Xi agreed to advance cooperation on climate change by reducing emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), a potent greenhouse gas. According to the announcement, the countries will work under the Montreal Protocol to phase down the consumption and production of HFCs, which are commonly found in refrigerators and air ...

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2014

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction, and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Background The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone layer, which entered into force in 1989, aims to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out more than 200 substances, including ...

  • WMO Greenhouse gas bulletin

    The latest analysis of data from the WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), shows that the globally averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have reached new highs in 2007 with CO2 at 383.1 ppm, CH4 at 1789 ppb and N2O at 320.9 ppb. These values are higher than those in ...

  • New ASTM Test Method Offers Quick and Easy Oil and Grease Measurement for Water and Soil Samples

    Onsite Field Measurement of Oil and Grease A quick and easy field analysis method for determining oil and grease concentration levels is important for both offshore oil platforms and soil remediation sites.. Prior to the Montreal Protocol, infrared (IR) analysis using Freon as an extraction solvent was a widely used field and laboratory method. In 1999, the U.S. EPA promulgated Method 1664A to ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2015

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction, and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Executive Summary Background Chemicals known to harm the ozone layer have been successfully substituted in most parts of the world since 1989, when the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer came into ...

  • How to reverse the causes of ozone layer destruction

    Since the causes of ozone layer depletion were identified, solutions were put into place to reduce or eliminate their usage. The U.S. Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocols address the problem internationally. The goal of these treaties is to stop the damage to the ozone layer by phasing out known contributors.Although there are numerous causes of ozone layer depletion, chloroflurocarbons have ...


    By Accruent

  • A Guide on International Chemical Conventions

    There are many international chemical conventions restricting or even banning the production, use and trade of certain hazardous chemicals for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment. We have prepared a guide on major international chemical conventions with a focus on their aims, controlled substance list, control measures and their impacts. Note: You do not need to read all ...


    By ChemSafetyPRO.COM

  • Determination of oil and grease in water with a mid-infrared spectrometer

    The concentration of dispersed oil and grease (OG) is an important parameter for water quality and safety. OG in water can cause surface films and shoreline deposits leading to environmental degradation, and can induce human health risks when discharged in surface or ground waters. Additionally, OG may interfere with aerobic and anaerobic biological processes and lead to decreased wastewater ...


    By PerkinElmer, Inc.

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2012

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Background In 1989 the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone layer entered into force. It has the objective of protecting the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out the production of substances that ...

  • Destruction of ozone depleting substances - Case study

    Destruction of ODSs ODSs are substances that cause the depletion of the ozone layer. Depletion is typically caused by the photo-dissociation of halocarbons and catalytic destruction of ozone by the resulting atomic halogens. The majority of these halocarbons are man-made and have such serious affects to the ozone requiring control synchronized by the Montreal Protocol. The Protocol sets out a ...

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2011 - Summary

    In 1989 the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer entered into force. It has the objective of protecting the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out the production of substances that contribute to ozone depletion. The Protocol covers over 200 individual substances with a high ozone.depleting potential, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons ...

  • Can the U.S. get there from here? Using existing federal laws and state action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are expected to rise unless additional policy actions are taken. This report identifies a suite of policies that the Administration can pursue that do not require new legislation by the U.S. Congress. If pursued with “go-getter” level ambition, those policies can reduce U.S. emissions 17 percent below 2005 levels in 2020. Key Findings Without new ...

  • Getting ready for the phase out of R-22 (HCFC) refrigerant gas

    Market Demand for R-22 HCFC Refrigerant Gas Will be 20% Higher than Available Supply The HCFC refrigerant gas called R-22 is the most pervasive refrigerant in everyday use around the world. Since the 1940's R-22 has been the refrigerant gas that we use in central air-conditioning (AC) systems at home and work. It is efficient, non-toxic and easy to use. It's difficult to grasp how important ...


    By Accruent

  • Ozone Depleting Substances

    Abstract In Europe the increase in ultra-violet radiation (UV) is estimated to be larger over the western parts because of large depletion in the total ozone column. UV global trends are estimated to increase by 3-4% per decade in northern hemisphere midlatitudes and 3-9% in southern hemisphere midlatitudes. The ozone layer can start recovering, but full recovery will take another 50 years if ...

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