municipal water distribution Articles

  • Senix Water Level Sensors Drive Irrigation Automation Project

    Australia’s Water Crisis Irrigation management is serious business in Australia especially within the Murray-Darling Basin, a 1,000,000 square kilometer watershed that is home to Australia’s most productive agricultural land. The basin’s 23 rivers have ...


    By Senix Corporation

  • Methodology for Forensic Investigation of Potable Water Quality in Municipal Distribution Systems

    Abstract During routine regulatory potable water quality sampling in distribution systems related to the Total Coliform Rule, utilities can sometimes experience anomalous detections of total coliform bacteria and/or fecal coliform bacteria in the distribution system samples. Frequently, the regulatory-required retesting of the same sample locations reveals no detection of bacteria, and thus ...

  • Impact of incomplete mixing in the prediction of chlorine residuals in municipal water distribution systems

    This paper investigates the mixing phenomena in pipe junctions in water distribution systems. Network simulation models frequently assume that mixing at pipe junctions is complete and instantaneous. In the present study, a series of experiments using tee and cross junctions with varying inflows and free chlorine concentrations were carried out in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Institute of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Crossville, TN, municipal drinking water

    The Situation: The City of Crossville, Tennessee, needed to address increasingly strict regulations on the use of gas chlorine to disinfect their community’s water. The Solution: By switching from gas chlorine to MIOX mixed oxidants, the City has reduced operational costs, improved residual durability, reduced byproduct formation, produced longer filter ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • A primer on energy efficiency for municipal water and wastewater utilities

    This primer is concerned with energy use and efficiency of network-based water supply and wastewater treatment in urban areas. It focuses on the supply side of the municipal water cycle, including the extraction, treatment, and distribution of water, and collection and treatment of wastewater-activities which are directly managed by Water and Wastewater Utilities (WWUs). The main challenges to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • West Columbia, SC, municipal drinking water

    The Lake Murray Water Treatment Plant (LMWTP) in West Columbia, S.C., was dedicated in 1991 with a capacity of 6 million gal per day (mgd). With upgrades completed in 2007, the plant has a current capacity of 22.5 mgd. Most of the water from LMWTP is sold; 19% of the water is distributed to the system for which the LMWTP management and staff is responsible. 0In the early 1990s, the water ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • Distribute and Sell in China's Residential Water Treatment Market

    Are you considering selling or distributing in the Chinese water market?  Download our report on the Chinese residential water treatment market and learn about: The state of China's water Key market developments Market entry and IPR protection Obtaining Product Certification Foreign and Domestic product offerings ...


    By Launch Factory 88

  • The Low Down on Pipes: A Look at Municipal Water

    We manufacture our portable remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and pipe crawlers for a variety of different industries and applications. Due to their robust design and versatility, Deep Trekker products have proven to be the ideal tools for many professionals and ...


    By Deep Trekker Inc.

  • Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage

    This study was conducted to investigate the retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) that consists of both vertical baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs) and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSFs) with unique flow regimes and oxygen distribution. The heavy metal concentrations in water, sediments, and plant tissues in the hybrid CW were analysed. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Rethinking Big Water - Is It Time For A New Approach To Municipal Water Infrastructure?

    Las Vegas has long served as a stereotype of human excess: gambling, drinking, sex, all-you-can-eat buffets. But the latest chapter is playing out away from the Strip, in the part of the valley where two decades of booming development have swelled the population to 2 million residents who rely on a dwindling water supply. Ninety percent of the southwestern U.S. city’s drinking water comes ...


    By Ceres

  • UV set to dominate the municipal industry

    The use of Ultra Violet (UV) light has now become standard practice in most municipal waste water treatment processes. Effluent is now starting to be recognised as a valuable resource, not a problem that needs to be dumped.  Many waste water facilities are being renamed as water reclamation facilities, and whether the waste water is being discharged into a river, being used to irrigate ...


    By atg UV Technology

  • Municipal Elverom, Norway case study

    Project Name: Elverom RA Location: Nordre Land Kommune, Norway Type of Plant: Municipality - RBC Retrofit Technology Used: Biowater CMFF Biofilm system Biomedia Used: Biowater BWT-X Operational Since: July 2011 The Challenge Nordre Land Kommune, Elverom, is a ...


    By Biowater Technology

  • Geotechnical Properties of Municipal Solid Waste

    A geotechnical testing program was conducted to evaluate the engineering properties of aged solid waste samples retrieved from a landfill that began accepting waste as early as 1940. The conducted tests included water content, specific gravity, Atterberg limits, grain-size distribution, compaction, permeability, consolidation, triaxial, and direct shear. Maximum dry unit weight achieved using the ...


    By ASTM International

  • Elverom R.A. - Municipal RBC Retrofit

    Elverom R.A. - a Municipal RBC Retrofit The Challenge:  Nordre Land Kommune - Elverom is a municipality located in Norway approsimately 14 miles North of Oslo.  Elverom had two Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC's)  which did not work properly, were noisy and had odor issues.  The required maintenance for the RBC's had become overwhelming.  Elverom wanted to change over ...


    By Biowater Technology

  • Factors influencing public perception and use of municipal drinking water

    Despite more stringent regulations concerning drinking water quality in many countries, the public is increasingly concerned about the safety of municipal tap water. For this reason, acquiring a better understanding of consumer perception of tap water is an important issue for water authorities and utility managers. In this study, water consumption choice and profile were investigated. The case ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Municipal water pricing and tariff design: a reform agenda for South Asia

    The water tariffs currently in use in most cities in South Asia are not accomplishing their principal objectives. They are not generating sufficient revenues to ensure that utilities can recover their financial costs. They are not sending the correct economic signals to households, i.e., that water is scarce and must be treated as a valuable commodity. They are not helping the majority of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Maximize Your Recycled Water Distribution through Technical Customer Service

    The Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA), a municipal water district in southern California, provides high quality recycled water for landscape, agricultural, and industrial uses. Two industrial customers, an electrical power generating station and a textile dyeing company, required special efforts to address their recycled water quality needs. The electrical power generating station faced the ...

  • Evaluation of statistical sampling for the assessment of residential consumption totals in water distribution networks

    The paper provides insights into stratified sampling, a standard statistical technique that may be employed to assess domestic water use in water distribution networks. The basic idea is to use only a few meters to provide inference on the total water consumption of a network or of a district metered area through the knowledge of some additional stratification variables, such as household ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Monitoring groundwater resources for Municipalities - Case Study

    Background The City of Tucson is located in the Sonoran Desert in southwest United States (U.S.), approximately 100 km north of the Mexico-U.S. border. Tucson Water operates more than 215 groundwater wells, covering more than 300 square miles, providing more than 37 billion gallons (140 million m3) of potable water to its 730,000 inhabitants each year. The region receives only 12 inches of ...


    By Van Essen Instruments

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