non revenue water reduction Articles

  • Technical inefficiency effects in a stochastic production function for managerial incentives in public water utilities

    Performance of state-owned water utilities in developing countries is often weak. This study estimates the impact of managerial incentives upon efficiency using a stochastic frontier production function with revenue water as the output. The empirical analysis utilises unbalanced panelled data consisting of revenue water, connections, operating expenditure, water delivered and staff, from ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Non-Revenue Water – A Growing Issue for Water Utilities

    Each day, billions of gallons of water are lost worldwide to various factors, including leaks, water main failures, theft and metering inaccuracies. Not only does this represent the waste of a precious resource that many people do not have reliable access to, it also represents a massive amount of lost revenue for the utilities that provide water services. In developed nations, ...

  • Applying incentives to increase revenue water in urban systems

    The study utilises cross-sectional data from utilities of the National Water and Sewerage Corporation of Uganda to test application of extrinsic incentive theory on non-revenue water (NRW) reduction. Applying a multiple regression model, we find that the effect of level of incentive payments on revenue water (billing efficiency) depends on the amounts of staff inputs, service coverage and water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Successful NRW Reduction Experience in China

    Sino French Water is a company created in 1992 between Suez Environnement of France and NWS Holdings Limited of Hong Kong. Sino French Water invests and establishes joint-ventures (JVs) with local water authorities and companies in China to improve the management and operation of water, waste water, industrial water services and sludge treatment. Today there are more than 25 JVs spread all over ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessing the performance of urban water networks across the EU Mediterranean area: The paradox of high NRW levels and absence of respective reduction measures

    The aim of this paper is to assess the performance level of water distribution systems (WDS) in six areas located in four Mediterranean countries, and evaluate their common characteristics. The second modification of the IWA Standard International Water Balance was used to account for the fixed charge included in the customers' bills. Each WDS efficiency was annually assessed, although in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Developing a non-revenue water reduction strategy: planning and implementing the strategy

    ABSTRACTA companion paper dealt with the tasks required to investigate and assess the components of non-revenue water (NRW). This is a necessary first step in a diagnostic approach to understanding the condition of the network, the way that it is operated, and the constraints acting upon it. This second part deals with the tasks and tools required to address the constraints, and to develop a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Investigating unaccounted for water and its components in Zomba City water supply system, Malawi

    This study assessed Unaccounted for Water (UFW) in Zomba City, Malawi in 2009 and quantified its real and apparent loss components. The study was carried out in the period January–May 2009 and focussed on three selected water supply zones (Airwing, Malonje and Sadzi) especially for determination of the components of non-revenue water (NRW). Field measurements of flow and utility records formed ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Leaks on large-diameter trunk mains – more than just non-revenue water reduction

    Providing safe, reliable access to clean water is a major challenge for utilities around the world considering that roughly 12 billion gallons of water are lost every day globally. While many utilities are aware of the importance of reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW), reducing it can be a challenge. The World ...

  • Tackling Non-Revenue Water by Identifying Small Leaks

    Small leaks sink big ships – the same can be said for large-diameter pipes in utility networks. While large leaks or ruptures are seen as newsworthy stories accompanied by images of water flowing down the streets; smaller leaks can often be more devastating. Left undetected, they can add up over time, contributing significantly to ...

  • Reaching economic leakage level through pressure management

    High non-revenue water (NRW) values as a percentage of system input volume form a serious problem that many water utilities worldwide have to confront nowadays. There are ways to mitigate the effect by adopting strategies with short- and long-term results. Water pressure management (PM) is one of the most efficient and effective NRW reduction strategies. To calculate pressure management of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Field Application of a Financial Model for Optimal NRW Management

    During 2009-2010, RTI International developed and published a financial model which calculates the financially optimum level of Non-Revenue Water (NRW). The model computes a target (under future steady-state conditions) for NRW reduction and control programs, based on site conditions and local costs. The model was presented at IWA Water Loss Specialist Conferences in Cape Town and Sao Paulo and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Methodology for Optimal NRW Program Design

    During 2009-2010, RTI International developed and published a financial model which calculates the financially optimum level of Non-Revenue Water (NRW). The model computes a steady-state target for NRW reduction and control programs, based on site conditions and local costs. The model was presented at IWA Water Loss Specialist Conferences in Cape Town and Sao Paulo and other international ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Mancomunidad de la Comarca de Pamplona (MCP) Identifies 4 Leaks Using Inline Leak Detection

    Around the world, leaking water pipelines represent a major resource and financial loss for utilities. It is estimated that in some places, Non-Revenue Water exceeds 50 percent. In terms of financial losses, the World Bank estimates that NRW costs utilities worldwide about US$14 billion annually. By reducing these losses by half in areas with the highest NRW, it is estimated that US$2.9 billion ...

  • Case study - Maynilad Water Services - Manila, Philippines

    Service: Sahara - Leak Detection and Video Client: Maynilad Water Services, Inc. Project Date: Ongoing since 2010 Location: Manila, Philippines Type of Pipelines: Water Mains Diameter: 12-inch to 24-inch (300mm to 2200mm) Pipe Material: Cast Iron Ductile Iron Steel Length: 50 miles (80 km) Results: Over 157 leaks ...

  • Small Leaks Matter

    In the final part of the leak detection series, we explain why locating small leaks is and important part of a water loss management strategy. To see the first post in the series that outlines the problem of water loss in North America,  ...

  • Small leaks matter

    In the final part of the leak detection series, we explain why locating small leaks is and important part of a water loss management strategy. To see the first post in the series that outlines the problem of water loss in North America,  ...

  • Case study - Birmingham water works board identifies 26 leaks using advanced inline leak detection

    Service: SmartBall Leak Detection Client: Birmingham Water Works Board Project Date: January 2012 - ongoing Location: Birmingham, Ala Type of Pipeline: Water Transmission Main Diameter: 42-inch (1050mm) Pipe Material: Reinforced Concrete Pipe In early 2012, the Birmingham Water Works Board (BWWB) ran a successful leak detection program on 7.7 miles (12 km) of 42-inch ...

  • Optimizing Wastewater Treatment

    ' Growing volumes of both industrial and municipal wastewater are being discharged to surface waters but the treatment provided frequently is inadequate to protect the desired uses of the receiving waters. With limited resources in terms of both institutional capacity and finance, governments face difficult choices in optimizing their investments in municipal systems and establishing practical ...


    By The World Bank

  • Confronting allegations of air quality non-compliance

    A facility with an air quality permit must comply with all the conditions of that permit and demonstrate its compliance on an on-going basis. Unfortunately, no matter how diligently the facility and corporate staff strives to assure continuous compliance, unexpected compliance challenges can occur. For example, new equipment fails the emissions guarantees provided by equipment vendors; new staff ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Dry/Wet Scrubbers for Clean Air Compliance

    Air-scrubbing venturis and towers may be the answer to clean air compliance for small- to medium-sized companies. Forthcoming requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will inventory many more specific chemicals considered hazardous. From acetaldehyde to xylenes, the list regulated under the air taxies program includes 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). That number may ...


    By CR Clean Air Group, LLC

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