ozone depleting Articles

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2012

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Background In 1989 the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone layer entered into force. It has the objective of protecting the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out the ...

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2014

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction, and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Background The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone layer, which entered into force in 1989, aims to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out more than 200 ...

  • Ozone Depleting Substances

    Abstract In Europe the increase in ultra-violet radiation (UV) is estimated to be larger over the western parts because of large depletion in the total ozone column. UV global trends are estimated to increase by 3-4% per decade in northern hemisphere midlatitudes and 3-9% in southern hemisphere midlatitudes. The ozone layer can start recovering, but full recovery will take another 50 years if ...

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2015

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction, and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Executive Summary Background Chemicals known to harm the ozone layer have been successfully substituted in most parts of the world since 1989, when the Montreal Protocol on Substances ...

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2013

    Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export, production, destruction and feedstock and process agent use of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union Background The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer entered into force in 1989 and aims to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out more than 200 substances, ...

  • Ozone-depleting substances 2011 - Summary

    In 1989 the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer entered into force. It has the objective of protecting the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out the production of substances that contribute to ozone depletion. The Protocol covers over 200 individual substances with a high ozone.depleting potential, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons ...

  • Ozone depleting substances (ODS) and The Montreal Protocol

    The Montreal Protocol, officially called the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, is an international treaty created to reduce the damage being caused to the stratospheric ozone layer by air pollutants such as refrigerant gases. The ozone layer protects the earth from damaging UV-B radiation, which could lead to increased cases of skin cancer, damaged crops and marine ...


    By Verisae

  • EPA enforcement of the ozone depleting substance (ODS) regulations

    Is Your Organization Flirting With EPA Compliance Risk? The EPA Enforcement Office will issue fines for undocumented refrigerant gas usage as it relates to ozone depleting substances. Do you know how to mitigate this compliance risk? The phase-out program of refrigerant gas is now in full swing and facilities that use equipment requiring the use of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are at risk for ...


    By Verisae

  • Frequent ozone depletion resulting from impacts of asteroids and comets

    The impact with the Earth’s oceans of a relatively small meteoroid, ≈260-300 m diameter, having a mean density of 2,500 kg/m3 and mean velocity of 17.8 km/s, would vaporize and loft sufficient seawater to ...


    By 2B Technologies

  • Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Our Planet`s Protective Shield is Being Destroyed

    Ozone Depletion Stratospheric ozone is Earth's natural protection for all life forms, shielding our planet from harmful ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. UV-B causes skin cancer, cataracts and immune suppression in both animals and humans. UV-B harms amphibian eggs, midge larvae and trout. UV-B also damages plants including hardwood forests, and phytoplankton (algae is a type of phytoplankton ...


    By IHS

  • How to reverse the causes of ozone layer destruction

    Since the causes of ozone layer depletion were identified, solutions were put into place to reduce or eliminate their usage. The U.S. Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocols address the problem internationally. The goal of these treaties is to stop the damage to the ozone layer by phasing out known contributors.Although there are numerous causes of ozone layer depletion, chloroflurocarbons have ...


    By Verisae

  • Handbook for the International Treaties for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (5th Edition)

    Guide to this Handbook The conclusion in 1985 of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, followed in 1987 by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, were the starting points of global co-operation for the protection of the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer. The five meetings held by the Parties to the Vienna Convention in 1989, 1991, 1993, 1996 ...


  • Application of life cycle assessment and exergy analysis in a combined cycle power plant using natural gas at Lavrion, Greece

    Natural gas (NG) has been penetrating the Greek energy market in the last few years. The first electricity production plant using NG in Greece was built in the city of Lavrion, South of Athens. This power plant uses combined cycle and has a capacity of 174 MW. The application of the life cycle analysis (LCA) tool enables us to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of all environmental ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The scientific basis for the prediction of climate change

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently published a Supplementary Report updating and supporting the First Assessment of 1990 and their findings are summarised here. If greenhouse emissions continue at the present level, the Report estimates a global temperature increase of 0.3% per decade – a rate probably greater than any since the last ice age. Sulphur pollution ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Refrigerant Gases (R-22 HCFCs): Understanding the laws regulating them

    The US Clean Air Act is a congressional law that explains the EPA's task in protecting air quality and the ozone layer. This Act is maintained by the House of Representatives. Major amendments were passed in 1990 and several other changes were made after that with still more pending related to mandatory reporting of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions.Refrigerant gases are those used in climate ...


    By Verisae

  • ISO 14000 instrumental to environmentally sound technology transfer in Asia and the Pacific

     Abstract As the 21st century dawns, the world confronts two conflicting situations – economic development and a deteriorating environment. Development has brought threats to human life in the form of the green house effect, the depletion of the ozone layer, acid rain, and smog. But as the human impact on the earth increases, so does our realization that the stability of the environment can ...


  • Ultraviolet radiation shapes seaweed communities

    Stratospheric ozone depletion and the concomitant increase in irradiance of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) at the earth’s surface represent major threats to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In costal rocky shore environments, seaweedsconstitute a group of organisms of particular significance to ecosystem function. Thus, impairment of seaweed performance by UVB-exposure may result in severe ...


    By Springer

  • Precaution in global environmental politics

    The article evaluates the application of the precautionary principle at the international level. It employs a comparative study of four cases in global environmental politics: ozone depletion, acid rain, deforestation and coral reef degradation. Contrary to widespread academic notions, the precautionary principle is not widely applied in international environmental policy. The empirical record ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • WMO Greenhouse gas bulletin

    The latest analysis of data from the WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), shows that the globally averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have reached new highs in 2007 with CO2 at 383.1 ppm, CH4 at 1789 ppb and N2O at 320.9 ppb. These values are higher than those in ...

  • How to decifer government laws for refrigerant gases (R-22 HCFCs)

    Refrigerant Gas Regulations for R-22 HCFCs: How the Government Mandates Monitoring and TrackingThe U.S. Clean Air Act is a regulation that spells out the EPA's role in air quality, especially in protecting the ozone layer and the tracking and reporting of Greenhouse Gases. The Act is maintained by the House of Representatives. The Clean Air Act has had changes made in the 1990s and again in 2008 ...


    By Verisae

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