particle counter Articles

  • The particle counter useful for formulation and process developement of parenterals

    Comments by major pharmaceutical company research scientist. We've found the Spectrex to be a very useful tool in formulation and process development for parenteral products in cases where the volume of solution available is limited, and we are primarily interested either in 1) differences in relative numbers and sizes of particles when comparing various formulations or processing treatments, or ...


    By Spectrex Corporation

  • Particle counter is used for subsea injection control

    “Production chemicals used in subsea applications have to be produced to a high specification of cleanliness, typically to better than NAS 8 (or the equivalent SAE AS4059 specification). This is because subsea injection systems typically terminate in narrow bore control valves that are prone to blockage by even the smallest particulates. Measurement of these production chemicals is ...


    By Spectrex Corporation

  • The Spectrex particle counter used in study of pharmaceutical glass delamination.

    Delamination, or the generation of glass flakes in vials used to contain parenteral drug products, continues to be a persistent problem in the pharmaceutical industry. To understand all of the factors that might contribute to delamination, a statistical design of experiments was implemented to describe this loss of chemical integrity for glass vials. Phase I of this study focused on the effects ...


    By Spectrex Corporation

  • Oil-In-Water Analysis. Verification of Particle Counter results by optical microscopy

    For my research work, which concerns separation of liquid/liquid dispersions, I selected the Spectrex PC2200. It covers the whole range of droplet sizes which are of interest, i.e. from 0.5 to 100 microns. The procedure for analysis is very simple and results are obtained in less than a minute. This makes the Spectrex instrument very handy for use in the lab as well as for field measurements (A ...


    By Spectrex Corporation

  • Utility of the laser particle counter for determination of drinking-water toxicity

    Particle toxicity in various water samples depends on the mixture of toxicants in each sample. Toxicity values for different samples can be expressed using the new metric: Particle Toxicity. Use of the Spectrex PC-2000 was the instrument of choice in enumerating the particle concentrations for the calculation of the particle toxicity of drinking-water and reference toxicant suspensions. ...


    By Spectrex Corporation

  • Particles Matter

    We all can recall our mothers telling us as children to go outside and get some fresh air.  Who would have known just how important this statement was and is today?  Air pollution affects the entire planet. You can't escape it anywhere not even inside your home or office. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indoor air can be up to ten times more ...


    By Met One Instruments, Inc.

  • NIOSH Announces Sampling Strategy to Help Identify Potential Nanomaterial Exposure in an Occupational Setting

    On November 1, 2016, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published a blog item entitled “Never fear!  NEAT 2.0 is here! — How to perform nanomaterial exposure assessment in the workplace.”  NIOSH notes that in 2009, it developed and was the first to recommend using the nanoparticle ...


    By Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.

  • Relationship between Particulate Matter measured by Optical Particle Counter and Mortality in Seoul, Korea, during 2001

    This study was performed to examine the relationship between particulate matter exposure and mortality in Seoul, Korea, during the year 2001. Particulate matter data were collected using an optical particle counter (OPC) and national monitoring stations in Seoul. The size-resolved aerosol number concentrations of particles 0.325 μm in diameter and mass concentrations of PM10 ...

  • Guide to Measuring Particles in Oil

    Particle counting is a critical aspect of any machine conditioning program and there are many tools out there available to monitor and track the quantity and severity of the contamination, be it due to external contamination or machine wear. The ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Automating oil particle analysis

    Run up to 25 samples at one time The major issue for premature failure in wind turbine gearboxes is bearing failure, which leads to gearbox failure. A wind turbine gearbox will not survive if the oil is ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Oil droplets and solid particles removal using circular separator with inclined coalescence mediums: comparison between co-current and counter-current flow

    This research investigated the effects of co- and counter-current flow patterns on oil-water-solid separation efficiencies of a circular separator with inclined coalescence mediums. Oil-water-solid separations were tested at different influent concentrations and flowrates. Removal efficiencies increased as influent flowrate decreased, and their correlationship can be represented by power ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Particle removal in a novel sequential mechanical filter system loaded with blackwater

    A novel sequential mechanical filter system was developed as an alternative primary treatment method for onsite wastewater treatment. The filter combines traditional screening with a novel type of counter-flow filter using wood-shavings as a biodegradable filter matrix. This study tested the system in a batch loading regime simulating high frequency toilet flushing using blackwater from a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) Light-duty Inter-laboratory Correlation Exercise (ILCE_LD) Final Report

    The Light Duty Inter-Laboratory Correlation Exercise has conducted testing at 9 test laboratories in the EU, Korea and Japan in order to demonstrate the practicality, robustness, repeatability and reproducibility of the particle emissions measurement techniques proposed by the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP). The exercise involved testing 16 light duty vehicles including 6 diesels equipped ...


  • Assessment of particulates in the urban atmosphere of Sao Carlos, Brazil

    A survey on the concentration of particulate matter in the urban atmosphere was carried out in the city of Sao Carlos, Brazil. Five sites were selected for data collection one in the city centre (high concentration of people and automotive vehicles), three in industrial areas, and one at the interface with the countryside. The particle size distribution and mass concentration, temperature, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Effect of active control of electric potential of filter medium on depth filtration

    The effect of active control of electric potential of filter medium on depth filtration was explored experimentally. Activated carbon particles were selected as the conductive filter medium. The filter medium potential was controlled with an external DC power supply. Kaolin particles were used as the model suspended solid. The activated carbon and kaolin had negative zeta potential around neutral ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Transformer oil quality control

    It is impossible to ensure reliability and longevity of energy systems without controlling the quality of transformer oil. Recent experience shows that approximately 30% of transformer oil, filled in power transformers, has deteriorated to the point when it becomes a risk factor. This is caused both to natural degradation of oil in operation due to thermal oxidation aging, and contamination with ...


    By GlobeCore GmbH

  • Revolutionary Design of Demineralizer Plant for the Process Industry

    Introduction Although counter-currently regenerated ion exchange demineralizer (DM) plants have been widely available since the 1960’s, the past decade has seen the introduction of a new generation of demineralizer designs in North America and Europe. Promoted by several of the major resin manufacturers, these include UPCORE from Dow Chemical, PUROPACK from Purolite and AMBERPACK from ...


    By Eco-Tec Inc.

  • Experimental Assessment of Particulate Measurement Instrumentation

     Introduction The European Commission has funded a project called 'Experimental assessment of particulate measurement instrumentation'. The project was undertaken by AEA Technology in the United Kingdom. The work comprised two phases: Phase 1: Literature review to help formulate the recommendations for measuring techniques to be investigated in Phase 2. ...

  • Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma?

    Fossil fuel burning releases about 25 Pg of CO2 per year into the atmosphere, which leads to global warming (Prentice et al., 2001). However, it also emits 55 Tg S as SO2 per year (Stern, 2005), about half of which is converted to sub-micrometer size sulfate particles, the remainder being dry deposited. Recent research has shown that the warming of earth by the increasing concentrations of CO2 ...


    By Springer

  • Microfiltration Pilot System, California

    INTRODUCTION In May 2013, Pure Aqua, Inc. successfully manufactured and supplied an microfiltration pilot system to a membrane manufacturer for Title 22 certification. Title 22 is the State of California’s stringent standard for treatment/disinfection of wastewater for non-potable reuse and ...


    By Pure Aqua, Inc.

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