penetration system Articles

  • GPR goes underground: Pipe Penetrating Radar

    Abstract: Pipe Penetrating Radar (PPR) is the underground in-pipe application of ground penetrating radar (GPR) either robotically or by manned entry to reveal wall thickness, delamination, voids, and other conditions that enable more precise determination of pipeline integrity and verifications for trenchless technology rehabilitation. PPR, when applied to pipe-bursting applications, can ...


    By SewerVUE

  • Cone Penetration of Partially Saturated Sands

    A laboratory study of cone penetration through partially saturated sand was conducted. A new method for preparing specimens at various degrees of saturation, which utilizes pressure release from previously carbonated water, is described. In closed water systems, where capillary tensions increase effective confining pressures, penetration resistance was significantly higher than in either dry or ...


    By ASTM International

  • Centrifuge Modeling for Projectile Penetration Studies

    This paper describes the rationale for using centrifuge modeling for projectile penetration studies in granular soils and presents details of a projectile delivery system that has been used to conduct centrifuge penetration tests. Included in the rationale is a dimensional analysis that indicates that self-weight induced stresses in the prototype soil mass should be duplicated in the model. ...


    By ASTM International

  • The VIY-2 Ground Penetrating Radar

    Abstract The VIY-2 ground penetrating radar (GPR) with unique sounding possibilities and use simplicity is presented at this paper. The VIY-2 GPR combines all units (synchronizer, transmitting and receiving modules, power supply and antenna system) into single case. The VIY-2 GPR communicates with computer via standard interface RS232 or USB 1.0. Utilized by the VIY-2 GPR technical solutions ...


    By Transient Technologies LLC

  • Introduction to Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

    About GPR Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a non-invasive method of material analysis based on transmitting an ultra wide band EM signal into the materials. A part of the EM wave is reflected when it reaches a boundary between two materials with different electrical properties. The reflected signal gets recorded at the source of the EM wave and is displayed for the operator and ...


    By Geoscanners AB

  • 100 Simple Ways To Save Water

    To improve water conservation install a rain sensor, it turns off your irrigation when it rains. Use a weather-based controller. The use of smart controllers can reduce water usage 24% a year on average. Learn about available rebate programs ...


    By Jain Irrigation, Inc

  • Treatment Alternatives for Liquid Penetrant Rinse Waters

    Explores the options available to process wastewater generated from liquid penetrant inspection. Rinse waters containing residues from the penetrant inspection process are generated from all but Method C (solvent removal).  The rinse water contains penetrants (Method A), or penetrants and emulsifier (Methods B and D), which contain oils and surfactants.  The water may also contain ...


    By Infinitex Corp.

  • High Penetrations of Renewable Energy for Island Grids

    Island grids represent an overlooked opportunity for renewable power. In addition to geographical islands there are also many electrical islands, such as remote locations throughout the world, where interconnections with neighboring grids are not a practical option. Due to transportation issues and the lack of economies of scale, these grids typically rely on liquid fuel derived from petroleum. ...


    By HOMER Energy LLC

  • Ground Penetrating Radar Evaluation of Concrete Tunnel Linings

    Abstract - Ground penetrating radar was used to map tunnel lining condition and locate concrete deterioration and voids in a continuous and non destructive manner. GPR surveying of Kapoor Water Supply Tunnel, Victoria, Canada was carried out with a 1000 MHz Sensors and Software Ltd., Conquest system mounted on a custom built cart. This 8.8 km long 2.3 m diameter concrete lined circular tunnel was ...


    By SewerVUE

  • The effects of dynamic residential load participation: penetration levels for operational impact on reliability

    Building an electrical load system that uses prioritised loads has been suggested as a means of approaching the overloading of the aging electrical infrastructure and thus increasing system reliability. In this paradigm, local controls would shut off electrical loads when overload conditions are being approached in the electrical power system. An unresolved question is how these systems might be ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Simplification of Soil Classification Charts Derived from the Cone Penetration Test

    This paper presents a semi-empirical approach to simplify existing CPT and PCPT soil classification charts. This approach is based on two tendencies in current charts, namely soil type and in situ soil state. These charts may be simplified into one-dimensional soil classification systems by linear conformal mapping. Accordingly, several charts are simplified, and a comparison to in situ testing ...


    By ASTM International

  • Development of PSO-based robust controller for maximising wind penetration

    In this paper, a new robust controller has been proposed for attaining the maximum safe instantaneous wind penetration. Particle swarm optimisation (PSO)-based algorithm has been developed to obtain the maximum safe instantaneous penetration by the optimisation of grid parameters. The developed algorithm has been tested on modified IEEE 14-bus system. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Advanced Condition Assessments: The benefits of using Pipe Penetrating Radar

    Abstract: Pipe Penetrating Radar (PPR) is the underground in-pipe application of GPR, a non-destructive testing method that can detect defects and cavities within and outside mainline diameter (>18 in/450 mm) nonmetallic (reinforced concrete, vitrified clay, PVC, HDPE, etc.) underground pipes. The key advantage of PPR is the unique ability to map pipe wall thickness and deterioration including ...


    By SewerVUE

  • Market penetration and pay-back period analysis of a solar photovoltaic system under Indian conditions

    The use of pay-back period analysis for economic evaluation of solar photovoltaic (PV) system reinforces the importance of the duration of the system. In a dynamic economic environment, the cost of energy increases at a faster rate than the common inflation rate. A time can be ascertained at which the market entry of the PV system will be profitable, i.e. at which the pay-back time drops below a ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Investigations on drop penetration and wetting characteristics of powder-liquid systems in relation to the mixing of acrylic bone cement

    This study investigated methyl methacrylate – polymethyl methacrylate powder bed interactions through droplet analyses, using model fluids and commercially available bone cement. The effects of storage temperature of liquid monomer and powder packing configuration on drop penetration time were investigated. Methyl methacrylate showed much more rapid imbibition than caprolactone due to decrease in ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Multi-sensor inspection robot shows benefits of pipe penetrating radar - Case Study

    Pipe penetrating radar (PPR), the in-pipe application of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is one of the most promising quantitative pipe condition assessment technologies to emerge in recent years. With most of the underground pipe infrastructure reaching the end of their design life there is a need to provide measurable data in order to establish the extent of rehabilitation required or the timing ...


    By SewerVUE

  • Condition Assessments using Pipe Penetrating Radar: the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District - Denver, CO Harvard Gulch Interceptor Case Study

    Abstract Pipe Penetrating Radar (PPR) is the underground in-pipe application of ground penetrating radar (GPR), a non-destructive testing method that can detect defects and cavities within and outside mainline diameter (>18 in / 450mm) non-metallic (reinforced concrete, vitrified clay, PVC, HDPE, etc.) underground pipes. The key advantage of PPR is the unique ability to map pipe wall ...


    By SewerVUE

  • System Description for Monitoring Volatile Hydrocarbons

    To help build a comprehensive Industrial Hygiene program, Buck Scientific introduces the IH910 vapor monitoring system utilizing our model 910 gas chromatograph and IH300 air sampling train. Designed to analyze hydrocarbons in air, such as degreasing solvents and paint vapors emitted during plant operations, the IH910 penetrates the 1mg/m3 detection barrier erected by other field portable gas ...


    By Buck Scientific Inc

  • Most common problems with septic systems

    Septic systems are extremely small and less expensive safeguarding systems which can give consistent tune-up functioning for 20 years or more unless with the proper and regular interval checkups. The intensity of preservation and occurrence of troubles can together be significantly compacted by identifying ...


    By Hydra International Ltd

  • Control and protection of distribution systems with distributed generators

    Unquestionably, in the last years, the number of generators connected directly to electric power distribution systems has increased. In addition, the main statistics and signals show that such tendency could become even more intense in the coming years. As a consequence of this policy, many technical factors related to control, protection, operation and analysis of distribution systems should be ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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